Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Macbeth – Notes on Elements of the Gothic in the play

* An Elizabethan audience would have been genuinely terrified by the events on stage as they believed that witches did exist, murder by witchcraft was made punishable in 1563 thus demonstrating that people during this era believed witches were real and had magical powers. * The theme of equivocation is used by Shakespeare to highlight the witch's evil nature; they use words with double meanings to confuse and disorientate Macbeth's thoughts and cause a conflict in his mind (between good and evil). * â€Å"the weird sisters† – whilst also meaning strange the word weird is derived from the old English ‘wyrd' which means fate or destiny, fate is often characterised as 3 old women. * Transformation * Macbeth is promoted to Thane of Cawdor by King Duncan, the audience have yet to meet Macbeth when Duncan makes this decision thus an impression of Macbeth as an honourable man is formed. The significance of this promotion is that Macbeth goes through a transformation from a brave soldier to a higher ranking, and more noble, position. * Macbeth's dramatic change in character is amplified in act 3 scene one as he attempts to annihilate Banquo, his close friend who he held in high respect at the start of the play. As the play progresses there is a steady breakdown of Macbeth's identity, causing him to be â€Å"not himself† by the end. A blurring of fantasy and reality * The line between fantasy and reality becomes blurred; the pinnacle point of this is in act two scene two after Macbeth enters from the murder. His piece of mind has been shattered as he feels that he has â€Å"murdered sleep†, there is no escape from his evil deeds as he has now become trapped in a living nightmare. To Macbeth (who comes over almost trance-like) he is just as vulnerable awake as asleep and to sleep would be too difficult because his mind has become corrupt with evil thoughts. (Macbeth becomes slightly hysterical during this scene as he struggles to make sense of what is happening to him, this is also an aspect of disorder) * â€Å"Is this a dagger which I see before me† – Macbeth appears tormented by his violent actions, which induce his tragic fall, it is after the murder of the king that he slowly evolves into a mad man who feels out of control with his mental state, it is corrupted thoughts that lead him to become power obsessed and thus a murderous, villainous man, his many delusions add to mounting suspense. (This also has links to transformation – transformation of the mind) Significant use of setting * Act one scene one opens with â€Å"Thunder and lightning† suggesting that the witches, who have gathered to talk about Macbeth, are somewhere outside. * The play is introduced as dark and dangerous, evil is introduced through the stormy weather that symbolises the disorder to come. * In act two scene four Ross and an old man talk about the stormy night, symbolising disruption in the kingdom, there is definite mystery as the location of the conversation is unclear, conversation takes place somewhere â€Å"outside the castle†. * â€Å"A camp near the battlefield† is the setting in act one scene two; a battlefield is a place where many people die, later in the play Macbeth becomes a murderer killing several people for un-just reasons. The king discusses the bravery shown by Macbeth and decides to reward him with the title Thane of Cawdor, he is being rewarded for killing here which could be a slight element of foreshadowing of his ability to kill for his own ends (merciless man).

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Crime and Punishment: Suspense

Suspense begins in Roskolnikov’s thoughts There are times where we find ourselves living in suspense, feeling insecure about what possibly can occur next. So many things that surround us, at times, foreshadow what may happen next. When this happens, we crave to know what is the next event that will arrive. In the book of Crime and Punishment, there are many parts in which the story becomes suspenseful. Well, how does Dostoyevsky achieve and sustain the suspense in his novel? It all starts right when we find out that Roskolnikov creates feelings of hatred towards Alyona Ivanovna, and creates some sort of plan to kill her. Even though in his thoughts laid the plan, he wasn't completely convinced by his own being in actually completing with a crime. But once he was at the bar, where he overheard a conversation about Ivanovna and how she were better off dead, he decided that it was best that he were to do their request. This is before the suspense comes into play. Overhearing the conversations about Alyona Ivanovna persuaded Rokolnikov that it was his destiny to murder her. The more he thought about it, the more he liked the idea. This is where we can see a bit of suspense growing, because as a reader, what can we expect from a man who has never committed a crime such as killing? While Roskolnikov was a bit insecure about his decision in doing murder, he planned to use an ax to murder Alyona Ivanovna. He got his ax, and went his way to her door, waiting the moment where he can take action. It's possible to imagine that in this moment, Roskolnikov probably tensed up in his body, possibly shook out of being nervous, and sweated heavily because he was going to do something he has never done before. The thoughts that lurked in his head of killing another person seemed right to him, because supposedly it was his â€Å"destiny†, but somewhere deep inside of him, he knew the act of murder brought consequences. This is where suspense begins to grow. Roskolnikov appears at her door, waiting for her to be in his presence. She opens the door to find him at her doorstep, and allows him to come in. Roskolnikov offered her something to distract her from seeing him get out his ax, and he was successful. The suspense by now has grown to a whole another level, where we read to find out if Roskolnikov is really capable of killing another person, or not. This part of the book ends with letting us know that he was libertine, and when the chance was presented to him, he got out his ax, and lacerated her until she lied on the floor, dead. Dostoyevsky, the author of Crime and Punishment, was successful in bringing in suspense to this part of the story. He was able to grasp for the reader's attention, in wanting to know more of what Roskolnikov was capable of doing, what would have been his next move, and leaving them in shock when they come to find out what he ends up doing. This had to be one of the times in the book of Crime and Punishment where suspense was presented. Works Cited Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment

Monday, July 29, 2019

Parental Apathy Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Parental Apathy - Case Study Example The principle strongly discourages Mrs. Rose from pursuing increased parent involvement in the school, citing that he is contented with the current state of affairs at the school. After lengthy persuasion, with ambivalent, the principle agreed to have a meeting with the parents under two conditions; that there would be no PTA but allow the parents to form an advisory committee. Even with one week’s notice to the meeting, sent home with the students, only eight parents attended. Due to poor turnout, the principle contemplated on cancelling the meeting. Schools present our children with an opportunity to acquire knowledge and learn new things. Not only are the lessons taught in a school geared towards professional excellence, they also aim at making children good and responsible people in the society. While teachers hold the role and responsibility of instilling knowledge in the children, they also ensure that students become morally upright people. However, teachers at times fa il to observe this essential role of their job. Therefore, there is every need to keep such teachers in check. Although principles have the mandate to do this, sometimes they too could disregard their duties, leaving incompetent teachers work in their institutions. This reality necessitates the inclusion of the parents in their children’s learning activities through involvement parental programs (Gorton, Alston, and Petra 331-332). Parents should thus be part of their children’s learning process. The community should also take part in ensuring that children receive the best education, be it academic or otherwise. Having a sound home-school partnership is the best way of achieving this objective. There is every need therefore for the schools to bring on board parents and the community in the learning process of their children. The school’s management should ensure that there exists a good relationship between the parents and the school. Gradually, parents have be come lesser involved in schools and their children’s learning process, a factor that has reduced cohesion between these two parties. In the past, parents took part in their children’s learning process. They found time to take part in different meetings happening in the learning institutions. Parents can understand this role if communicated by a district leader, rather than a school assistant principle. This is because of the culture of ignorance established by the parenting community. Moreover, people trend to honour authority more than management. This explains the reason why, even with a week’s notice top the meeting given to the parents, only eight of them attended. This describes high ignorance levels among the parents in our society. A district leader should thus intervene in such situations to ensure that parents actively take part in their children’s learning process (Gorton, Alston, and Petra 331-332). A district leader acts as a link between fami lies and the community members and at times between the community and the school. For a long time, the relationship between the community and learning institutions has considerably worsened. Because of this, parents forgot their role of ensuring that their children received the best form of education and training. A child cannot learn in school alone; the community is also part of the areas where a child can acquire education. Since families exist in a community where there is a high

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The City Both Offers and Restricts Possibility Essay - 1

The City Both Offers and Restricts Possibility - Essay Example In the first, part of The City, in Literature, the author links various aspects of life to the growing city. The residents have to deal with and understand the western idea of the growing city. The author uses philosophy, literature, and urban history to untangle the contradictory images and meanings of the urban experience. The growth of the city led to considerable rural to urban migration. Most people expected to lead a better life in the city. In the minds of these people, the introduction of the city gave them a picture of the western-like city forgetting the aspect of growth and time. Every idea and places starts from the first steps and should be given time, and enough resources to grow before we can start utilizing. The western idea of a city is what the characters in the book have in mind in relation to the city. The author traces the connection between creative writing and the city from the early novel in England to the apocalyptic cityscapes of Thomas Pychon. This relation ship aims at bringing out the understanding of the people of the city. Along the way, Lehan collects a prosperous backup of prop up, which includes Charles Dickens, Daniel Defoe, James Joyce, and even Theodore Dreiser. The European city in the literature has several shortfalls, and this is what the author emphasizes in his works. Notable in the literature is the turn down of feudalism while, at the same time there is the rise of the realm and dictatorship. The author relates the American city against the observable fact of the wilderness, the cutting edge, and the augment of the megalopolis. However, this is not the picture of what the residents of the city have, and this is only present in the available literature. From the above description, the statement; the city both offers and restricts possibility comes to light. In this notion, possibility could be in terms of the people’s ability to change and reform their lives to suit that of the American city. The statement means that the magnitude of change lies in the people’s ideology of the city. The presence of the city acts as a bridge to their achievement of the various things they need. For instance, in the event people want to have a better life economically, socially, and legally, then they have the city as their gate pass. On the other hand, the city acts as a limitation to the achievements of these dreams because of the existing restrictions. These restrictions are in terms of leadership, which is not so liberal hence, limiting the city’s residents in their ideologies of life. The City in Literature presents sharply imprinted portrayals of the correspondence between rationalism and entrepreneurship (Lehan, 1998, p.246). In as much as this information is only present in literature, the people have the capacity to changing this in to a real life practice. The resources and infrastructure, which can make this possible, is present in the city. However, the leadership in the city, which is mostly dictatorship, limits the occurrence of this development. The literature further explores the rise of the city, the demure of the landed estate, and the development of genres. The detective narrative, the gothic, and fantasy literature enable the author to explain the meaning of the city both offers and restricts possibility. Urban life is a process and requires exploration in all

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The Success Story of Toyota Comapny in Qatar Essay

The Success Story of Toyota Comapny in Qatar - Essay Example Current paper focuses on the performance of Toyota in Qatar. Toyota is one of the major competitors in the global automobile industry. The success of the firm has been highly related to its supply chain management system. The relatively low prices of the firm’s products, compared to the products of competitors, is another factor that has highly benefited the performance of Toyota worldwide. In Qatar, Toyota has followed similar goals and strategies. The history of Toyota in Qatar are presented and evaluated. Also, reference is made to the automotive industry of Qatar, at the level that the external environment can highly influence organizational performance. It is revealed that the prospects for Toyota in Qatar are significant. However, it is necessary for the organization to review its strategic framework periodically ensuring that the competitiveness of the firm towards its rivals is kept at high levels. A brief history of Toyota Toyota Motor was established in Japan in 1937 (Toyota Corporation 2012, History). Toyota Motor Corporation has resulted from the merge between Toyota Motor Co and Toyota Motor Sales Co in 1982 (Toyota Corporation 2012, History). Through the decades the firm established production units worldwide; still, the firm’s critical strategic decisions have been traditionally developed in Japan. Of particular importance have been the organization’s production units in USA, established in 1988, in UK, established in 1992 and in China, established in 2000 (Toyota Corporation 2012, History). Toyota Corporation focuses on the ‘Motor Vehicle Production and Sales’ (Toyota Corporation 2012, Overview). In 2011, the firm’s employees worldwide were estimated to 317,716 (Toyota Corporation 2012, Overview). In 2011, the firm’s profits reached the 18,993.6 (in billion yen), slightly increased from 2010, when the firm managed to achieve a profit of 18,950.0 (in billion yen, Toyota Corporation 2012, Overview). In 2009 the firm’s profits were estimated to 20,529.5 (in billion yen, Toyota Corporation 2012, Overview). In other words, the firm faces delays in regard to its profitability. This problem is made clear by reviewing the firm’s performance for the years 2006 to 2010 in US and Europe (Graph 1). Still, the performance of the firm in other markets is quite encouraging. For example, reference can be made to the case of China and Brazil (Graph 2). Graph 1 – Toyota Corporation in USA and Europe, for 2006-2010 (Source: Toyota Corporation 2012, Figures) Graph 2 - Toyota Corporation in China and Brazil, for 2006-2010 (Source: Toyota Corporation 2012, Figures) How it all started in Qatar The presence of Toyota in Qatar is closely related to Abdullah Abdulghani & Bros. Co. (AAB), a firm that was established in 1958 (Qatar 40 Years Organization 2012, Attendees).

Friday, July 26, 2019

Should school uniforms be mandatory Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Should school uniforms be mandatory - Term Paper Example studies and school experiences have proved that uniform dress code can play pivotal roles in controlling and rather minimizing the threats of violence. This article explains why school uniform is mandatory and how it benefits students and parents in achieving progressive academic performance and improved discipline. Relevant studies showed that one in four students reports that they were worrying of becoming a victim of crime and one in eight reports having been victimized at schools (King, 1998). Enforcing uniform dress code has shown moderate success in controlling the violence. How do clothes that students wear and rate of violence in schools relate? Fashion trend, especially at urban schools and gang-related clothing have been found to have significant roles in violence as gang-related children and gang-belonging groups frequently roam streets, enter schools and involve in violence. Their baggy pants and oversized shirts are often used to hide weapons and cause severe dangers on others. Strong enforcement of uniform code in schools will certainly reduce the violence and thus improve academic performance as well. California’s Long Beach School District, that comprises of more than 50 schools and 60,000 students, has implemented uniforms for all its students. Since it made uniforms mandatory for its students, district officials have found that discipline issues decreased dramatically, school crimes decreased by 36%, sex offenses by 74 %, weapon offenses by 50%, physical fights by 51%, vandalism by 18% and assault and battery by 34% (King, 1998) Some parents and students argue that enforcing uniforms in turn violates the rights of children to wear dresses according to their wish and denies freedom of expression (Craik, 2005, p. 70), despite the fact that an Arizona court held that a mandatory school uniform policy is constitutional and school’s policy and rules are merely ‘content-neutral’ (Alexander and Alexander, 2005, p. 377). When they argue for

Art and Music Appreciation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Art and Music Appreciation - Essay Example According to Schneider-Adams ,there are six reasons why art is created ,they are represented below ialondside examples of paintings or art that explain the reason. Grogian chant a form of liturgical chant that was used in the western Christianity, it was mostly played during mass celebration and at ritual rights. It was formed by Pope Gregory who was the acting pope from the year 590 -604, he was well known for his categorization of music to be played during specific events in the church. The Grogian chant is some kind of frenzy music with prolonged intervals between tune and whose pitch keeps alternation from high to low to very high tones. The pitches keep alternating and this creates a confusion of some sort in the mind. I think the music has some form of spiritual attachment, given the fact that it is played in the church and ,the changing pitches have some effect on one’s soul. It keeps ones detached from the real world to a far way place that cannot be well distinguished ,though this only happens when one pays full concentration to the pitches and tones released from it. I agree with the modern listeners that the music has some haunting effect, this could be due to the fact that it is ancient and not similar to modern

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Basics of Entity Relationship Modeling Assignment

Basics of Entity Relationship Modeling - Assignment Example Entity-relationship diagrams mostly used during design stage to identify system elements and their relationships. We must identify business entities, attributes, and relationships. Entities are something about which data is recorded. It is represented in ER diagrams by rectangles and named using singular nouns. Attributes are property trait or characteristic of an entity. Top level ER diagrams do not include attribute for easiness. Relationship describes how business entities interact. From the given business scenario, Department has a one to many relationship with employees and royers. This is because department can employ many employees and each employee is assigned to one department. However, relationship between department and royers is optional since some are not assign any specific department. On the other hand, employee has a one to one relationship with department because one department can be managed my one employee. Division has a one to many relationship with department be cause one division can operate many departments and one division can operate each department. Since division can be managed by one employee, their association is a one to one relationship. Employees has a one to many relationship with projects. This is because many projects can be assigned to one employee to work on it. Also, one project must be assign to one employee. Client has a one to many relationship with project since one client can sponsor many project. The following is an entity relationship diagram for the given business scenario.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Terrorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Terrorism - Essay Example sider the motive of the Government for introducing such extreme measures and try to reach a conclusion as to whether the reaction of the Government is proportionate to the threat or whether the Government are using legislation as a tool to target minority sectors. The study will necessarily involve an analysis behind the circumstances of the arrests of suspects and offer an opinion as to whether the way in which the suspect was detained was necessary or whether the measures used were too extreme. This will involve an analysis of newspaper reports in relation to the manner of the arrest and will look at the outcome following the arrest. This will be particularly important in relation to those that are subsequently released without charge. This study will consider whether the Government has adopted the correct approach to the threat of terrorism or whether their actions could be regarded as too extreme. Chapter one will look at the definition of terrorism and will attempt to define acts that ought to be considered as acts of terrorism. Within this framework the study will consider the arrests of terrorist suspects and the circumstances behind these arrests. It is anticipated that this might reveal that in many cases the Government reaction to the threat of terrorism is too extreme. Chapter 2 will look at the reason for legislation in this area. This will involve an analysis of the 9/11 attack in the United States of America and the 7/7 attack in the United Kingdom. The research will then expand to examine the powers that have been given to the police through this legislation and will examine the legality of arrests that have occurred since the changes that have been introduced through legislation. In chapter 3 the study will examine the human rights aspect of the legislation and will pose the question as to whether the present legislation offends against the principles of the Human Rights Act. This will necessarily involve considering whether the fear of a

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Financial Management Individual Work 1 Week 12 Essay

Financial Management Individual Work 1 Week 12 - Essay Example One of the commonest features is that they at transferring production to individuals who are no longer involved in the process of production. This is a link between the present group of workers with the past workers who have reached the retirement age. Other features include the need for employees to be eligible in order to be part of a pensionable plan and varied statutory limitations that are related to the contribution and the benefit under the plan (Hustead, 2001). Another feature is that participants under the plan accrue contribution and upon attainment of the normal retirement age, they receive the vested portion of the benefits. Pension fund management involves investment of assets in order to achieve the long term goal of providing funding for retirement (Cohen, 2007). Because of the huge amount of importance that pension funds hold over the long term financial well being of the recipients, managing the fund has become very crucial in organizations. However, individuals who oversee pension funds face challenges that keep on evolving with changes in the business environment, for example, challenges driven by factors like national legislation. Another concern relates to good governance because funds need to be well run by skilled employees at the management level and there needs to be effective supervisory board. Lack of skilled employees increases the risk of mismanagement of funds which is depended on by the beneficiaries. Inflation has remained one of the major concerns when managing pension schemes. This is because pension schemes are usually exposed to a rise in inflation as most of the pension funds paid are inflation-linked. Managers need to find ways of dealing with inflation, for example, by hedging through investing in swaps and index-linked bonds. If these options are preferred, another challenge comes up where a question comes up as to whether a company wants to deal with inflation expensively because index-linked bonds and

Monday, July 22, 2019

Why Are Esl Students Left Behind Essay Example for Free

Why Are Esl Students Left Behind Essay Andrew Duffy and Grace Chen explore why immigrant students who speak English as a second language face long odds in becoming high school graduates in North America in the following articles: â€Å"Why are ESL students left behind? † and â€Å"Inclusion or Exclusion? The ESL Education Debate. † According to a University of Calgary professor, Hetty Roessigh(1994), ninety-three percent of the ESL students who arrived as beginners in English were likely to drop out from high school. (para. ) Additionally, they face many obstacles such as dealing with the difficult language that they encounter in textbooks and cannot translate their academic ability into decent marks on written tests. (Roessigh, 1994, para. 11) In the article â€Å"Why are ESL students left behind? † written by journalist Andrew Duffy in 2004, he examines the cause and effects of English as a second language in education. By having different perspectives of the professional researchers of ESL studies as evidence, the author discusses the disadvantages that students faced. â€Å"For every one of the ESL kids who makes it, there are hundreds who don’t. (Roessigh, 2004, para. 4) However, in the article â€Å"Inclusion or Exclusion? The ESL Education Debate† written by Grace Chen in April 7th, 2009 for the Public School Review website, discusses how to enhance ESL students learning and at the same time the public schools are coping with reduced funding due to the economic recession. The 2001 national mandate, No Child Left Behind, required that all public schools help ESL students become proficient in English, as both native speaker and ESL students are mandated to meet State and National achievement standards. The Multicultural Education Journal) Nevertheless, when fifty percent of school-age children will have non-English speaking backgrounds by 2020, how do such programs improve ESL students’ English? While analyzing the article â€Å"Why are ESL students left behind? † I question the reliability because it is a secondary source that interprets and reviews the previous findings from the professional researchers. Supporting by Andrew Duffy’s proofs, it is serious that immigrant students who dissatisfy in school would not be able to please in the society. (2004). As a country, we cannot afford continuation of current practices, at the risk of under-preparing a large segment of our workforce for the 21st century. †(Wayne Thomas and Virginia Collier, of George Mason University, para. 48) Simultaneously, the second piece of the article â€Å"Inclusion or Exclusion? The ESL Education Debate† is also a secondary source. Grace Chen (2004) determines the effect of the â€Å"full inclusion system† in California, where students are forced to engage in fluent English classes, even if they have never been exposed to the language before. Secondly, making connection with immigrants’ socio-economic status from the first article and the required additional funding mentioned from the second article, both of the authors have closely the same thoughts which are that the immigrants students need more additional supports. Andrew Duffy provides a strong correlation between the socio-economic status and grades discover by Professor Gunderson which shows that refugees are mainly the people that needs the funding supports. Nevertheless, Grace Chen only discusses the funding that is needed for the ESL students yet the use is unknown. However, neither of the authors expressed their viewpoints in the articles. While Andrew Duffy found evidences supported by different sides of university-level professors, Grace Chen did not give a concrete answer for the debate. Nobody is sure how the inclusion will work out yet they have already reduced funding for the ESL students. â€Å"What is the best approach on behave of all the difficulties facing by the ESL students? †(Grace Chen, 2009, para. 12) As a conclusion, regarding how to defend the needs of all students, I would say â€Å"Why are ESL students left behind? † is more correct than â€Å"Inclusion or Exclusion? The ESL Education Debate. †.

Physics of Springboard Diving Essay Example for Free

Physics of Springboard Diving Essay What the hurdle does, is first to allow the diver to use the diving board as a slingshot, and second get as much energy as possible out of the slingshot. This is achieved when the diver takes the first leap into the air with his arms raised. When he comes back down on the board, his own mass falling onto the board will apply a certain force. An additional force is added as the arms swing down at the same time with a greater acceleration, applying more force. At the bottom of the diving boards oscillation, all of the now stored potential energy is released. The diver swings his arms upward and begins to release his pressure on the board. The board pushes the diver up and into the air with a huge force. This force now can be used by the diver not only to go up, but to rotate and therefore perform various dives. The Dives and Application To do a front dive a diver pushes his hips upward just slightly as he leaves the board. After he had begun to go up into the air, he throws his arms downward just enough to make is upper torso rotate around his hips. At the peak of the dive, the diver tightens his stomach muscles and pulls his legs up towards the sky, leaving his body in a perfect upside-down position to enter the water head-first. In order to perform a front dive with a somersault, it requires a full flip of the body and therefore it takes a quicker rotation to cover such an angular distance. The diver takes off from the diving board with the same hip motion and arm swing as for a forward dive, but throws the arms further and makes a smaller ball in the air. As is seen in the laws of rotational motion, the divers moment of inertia becomes smaller, but since momentum must be conserved in the system, the angular speed increases to compensate. It is important to note here that the reverse can be applied in order to stop the divers rotation to keep him from doing a belly-flop on the water. To stop his rotation, the diver increases his moment of inertia by straightening his body, conserving momentum again. When a diver goes to jump off of the board backwards, he begins by swinging his arms down with a deep knee bend. Just as in the hurdle, this presses the board down. When the diver lets the diving board recoil, he does two things at the same time: He swings his arms back up and jumps up. The board assists the diver just as in the hurdle and he has the ability to put this new energy to use. To do a back dive, the diver pushes his hips up as he leaves the board. Once airborne, he leans back and pulls his hips upward even more, generating just enough rotation to go into the water headfirst. To do a back dive with a somersault, the diver pulls his hips upward while leaving the board. As the rotation begins, he swings his arms around and grabs his knees to make himself smaller. Again, just as is accomplished with the front dive with a somersault, the moment of inertia is made smaller and the angular speed increases to make enough spin that is needed to complete the somersault. Reverse Dives You would think that there was a similar technique between performing a back dive and a reverse dive, which is true. A forward hurdle is applied before the dive, but when the diver leaves the board, he pushes his hips upward and leans back enough to create a backwards rotation and enter the water head first. Again, just like the back dive with a somersault, the same laws of physics allow for a diver to perform a reverse dive with one-and-a-half somersaults and enter the water headfirst. A smaller moment of inertia leads to a greater angular speed. Inward Dives Although the take-off for an inward dive is like that of a back dive, the techniques used in the air are exactly like those that are used to perform a front dive. Twisting Dives The front dive with one somersault and one twist can appear to be tricky, but it involves the same conservation of momentum as the other dives, only along two axis of rotation. When the diver takes off from the board, he begins his flipping rotation by throwing his upper body down towards his legs. Next, he unfolds while rapidly wrapping his arms about his body. This begins the twisting motion. From here, all the diver has to do is figure out what his orientation in the air is in order to know when to straighten his body to counter the flip and when to unwrap his arms to counter the twist before entering the water.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Defining Rural Literacies

Defining Rural Literacies The term rural literacies can conjure up a variety of images-that of a young woman teaching students of mixed ages and grades in the one-room schoolhouse, a farm wife mending socks or preparing meals by the fireside, the farmer working in bucolic fields, or the racism and bigotry of small-town rednecks. Many of the images rural literacies bring to mind, positive and negative, are based on established stereotypes and inaccuracies about rural people and what counts as literacy or a misguided understanding of the sameness of rural populations (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Green Corbett, 2015). Understanding how rural literacies are defined and operationalized can offer an avenue for getting beyond stereotypical thinking about rural places and reconstructing new rural literacies to confront global change. There is lack of scholarly work around rural education and literacy studies (Brooke, 2003; Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Green Corbett, 2015). In fact, researchers have long wrestled with whether examining education through a rural lens is of value (Biddle Azano, 2016). Modern literacy research is often skewed towards urban or suburban sites and participants (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007), and education policy largely reflects an urban or suburban bias where reformers and policy makers wrongly assume that what works in these places will work for rural schools as well (). Many rural researchers are calling for an increased focus on the rural context of literacy studies (Azano, 2015; Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Edmondson, 2003; Green Corbett, 2015). Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) state, rural literacies are not something for only rural people to pay attention to; rural should not be seen in opposition to urban but as part of a complex global economic and soci al network (p. xi). They go on to suggest that in order to understand the connection of rural, urban, and suburban areas, we must examine rural lives and literacies and challenge the commonplace assumptions about rural people and rural places that deem them lacking in opportunities for literacy work and community engagement (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, p. xi). At this moment in history, scholarly insight into the role and significance of literacy practice in rural societies may be more important than ever. The incipient story of rural America in the 21st Century is one of change, challenge, promise, and uncertainty. Multiple elements, including environmental, economic, and political factors, contribute to this story. Globalization and technological advancements have transformed industries that traditionally characterize rural places (Edmondson, 2003; Green Corbett, 2015; Schafft Jackson, 2010) while simultaneously changing rural peoples connection to a global world (Bonanno Constance, 2003). Environmental factors, including fracking, strip mining, clear cutting, unsustainable hunting and fishing practices, and corporate farming, further alter rural landscapes (Tieken, 2014). Population demographics are shifting as well, with 80% of nonmetropolitan growth between 2000 and 2010 resulting from an influx of racial and ethnic minorities (Johnson, 2012). The proportion of white rural residents is dropping while the Hispanic population rises (Tieken, 2014). Outmigration experienced in some rural communities as young people leave to seek perceived economic and social benefits (Carr Kefalas, 2009; Corbett, 2007) and influx of baby boomer retirees (Cromartie Nelson, 2009) further contributes to a changed rural America. The question of how rural literacies are defined and operationalized in a globalized world is the focus of this paper. Green and Corbett (2015) explain, Rural literacies are multiple, mutable, and mobile, and ever relational. They inevitably float in a global sea (p. 12); yet little attention to date has been given to the distinctive features of literacy in rural contexts. The phrase rural literacies is, however, used in rural research (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Edmondson, 2003; Eppley Corrbett, 2012; Green Corbett, 2015; Pyles, 2016; Sohn, 2006), but answers to questions of what the term means, how to go about researching rural literacies, and whether there is an actual relationship between literacy studies and rural education are ambiguous. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize literature on rural literacies in an attempt to offer a description of how rural literacies are defined and operationalized and what role, if any, they play in literacy instruction. I will describe the theoretical framework for rural literacies studies, the difficulties in defining rural literacies, and endeavor to synthesize proposed definitions of rural literacies. Conceptual Framework for Rural Literacies Guiding an understanding of the meanings of rural literacies are three strands of thinking: place-conscious pedagogy, New Literacy Studies, and rural studies. Place-Conscious Pedagogy While educators tend to understand the importance of context for learning, practices of standardization deemed more fair and equalizing have typically been more valued in schools. Schafft and Jackson (2010) explain that standardization is a code for the erasure of difference and assimilation to a norm often set by the standards of urban, middle class life. Federal mandates ignore the rural context and define for rural communities the literate practices needed to succeed. Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) state that standardization movements take away the decision-making power of local communities for their schools. They write that national standardization movements, remove from local schools the possibility to define what constitutes literacy and how literacy should be valued in ways that could best integrate literacy practices into the needs and life of the local community (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, p. 26). At the root of place-conscious pedagogy, however, is the idea that th e most powerful forms of learning provide relevance by engaging students in issues of importance in their local communities (Green Corbett, 2015). Place-conscious pedagogy is an approach intended to ground learning in local phenomenon and students lived experiences (Smith, 2002, p. 586). Woodhouse and Knapp (2000) identified five characteristics of place-conscious learning: 1) learning emerges from characteristics of place, 2) learning is multidisciplinary, 3) learning is experiential, 4) learning connects place with individuals and their communities, and 5) learning is designed to educate, and potentially offer solutions to, problems in their communities. Place-conscious pedagogy in relation to rural literacies allows for a valuing of rural literacies that simultaneously foster a deep connection to place and identify those aspects that may require action for local sustainability. Considering rural literacies with regard to place-conscious pedagogy allows for viewing rural literacies with an eye towards sustainability and relevance rather than seeing rural literacies from a deficit perspective. For more than a century, the common public perception regarding rural literacy was one of lack-rural people lacked the same mental fortitude and valued education less than their urban and suburban counterparts (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Schafft Jackson, 2010; Tieken, 2014). Considering how the rural is depicted in literature and the literacies used in place in rural communities helps to define and understand various rural literacies. New Literacy Studies The New Literacy Studies viewed literacy as not just a cognitive act, but a sociocultural one as well (Gee, 2010b). People learn a given way of reading and writing by participating in the distinct practices of a social or cultural group. Two main premises underlie the New Literacy Studies. First is the understanding that literacy has changed from that of the past and will continue to change in the future. These changes happen because of social, cultural, and technological changes meaning that literacy is always situated in a context. Second, understanding how people use literacies in their everyday life can provide insight into how to improve formal literacy learning in school (Gee, 2004). The New Literacy Studies position literacy as a social act and examine how people use situated literacy skills in practicing multiple forms of literacy (Gee, 2010b). Literacy as a social practice means that what counts as literacy is expanded to include reading, writing, speaking, and listening and is not limited to printed text on a page. The ways literacies are read and written by the individual are guided by the values of their social or cultural group (Gee, 2010a). The New Literacy Studies, then, offer a guide for studying rural literacies by examining the ways rural people participate in social and cultural groups. Gee (2010a) writes, follow the social, cultural, institutional, and historical organization of people (whatever you call them) first and then see how literacy is taken up and used in these organizations, along with action, interaction, values, and tools and technologies (p. 5). The sustainability of rural life requires a variety of literate behaviors from rural resid ents revolving around how to make decisions about growth and change in rural communities (Collins Blot, 2003), and examining these literacies can guide educators in understanding to what extent the texts produced in rural settings are representative of rural cultures. Rural as a Field of Study Rurality as a field of study has been debated throughout United States history, and a recent literature review of the rural school problem by Biddle and Azano (2016) documents, in part, the evolution of thinking around rurality as a field of study. These authors found that researchers, educators, and reformers have fluctuated in their focus on rurality as a field of study over the past 100 years. Green and Corbett (2015) argue for the current imperative for rural studies, writing, The question of (dis)advantage is crucial here. Thinking through the relations between space and equity, education and poverty, literacy and social justice, is clearly a matter of some urgency. Addressing the rural in these terms is crucial (p. 5). Rurality is often characterized as the other, different from the norm. This characterization stems from a long history of stereotyping and stigmatizing of rural peoples. Beginning in the 19th Century, publications spoke of the backwardness of rural life and people while advocating for the sophistication of city life (Theobold Wood, 2010). This idea of rural people as lacking education and sophistication continues to be seen in modern television shows like My Big Fat Redneck Wedding or My Name is Earl. Recognizing the complexity of rurality, confronting and critically examining stereotypes, and conceptualizing rural literacies in a globalized world is important for the sustainability of rural places and for rurality as a field of study. Difficulties in Defining Rural Literacies Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) explain that, in their attempts to define rural literacies for their book of the same name, they could not find a specific definition in literacy research. Part of the difficulty in defining rural literacies arises from the complex, differing, and broad definitions of their component parts. Because the words rural and literacy are loaded terms with multiple definitions offered, it becomes challenging to concretely define rural literacies. The following sections describe the complications in defining the terms rural and literacy and thereby the difficulty in defining rural literacies. Defining Rural Many people can offer definitions for the term rural; however, these definitions are usually vague and varied from person to person. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) acknowledges this incongruity, stating, For some, rural is a state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. (Reynnells, 2016, para. 1). Quantitatively, rural is defined by what it is not-namely, anything that is not urban or suburban is rural. The United States General Accounting Office Fact Sheet for Congressional Requesters (1993) states, Metro/urban areas can be defined using several criteria. Once this is done, nonmetro/rural is then defined by exclusion any area that is not metro/urban is nonmetro/rural (para. 1). In general, rural is determined quantitatively by using population numbers and/or analysis of amount of open countryside (Reynnells, 2016). The most common Federal definitions of rural come from the Department of Commerces Bureau on the Census, the White Houses Office of B udget and Management, and the USDAs Economic Research Service. In choosing a particular definition, the USDA advises selecting based on the purpose of the activity on which the definition is based (Reynnells, 2016). Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2012) suggest that these demographic methods of defining rural as anything not urban lead to the homogenization of rural people as the other while elevating urban and suburban to the norm. It is a mistake to regard rural America as homogeneous as the myth of rural homogeneity masks underlying diversity among the people who have historically lived in the American countryside (Davis Marema, 2008, para. 9). While many people may think of rural America as made up of primarily white, working and middle class individuals, the proportion of white rural residents is decreasing while minority populations, particularly the Hispanic population, are growing (Housing Assistance Council, 2012). Definitions of rurality should acknowledge the complexity and diversity of rural populations. Rural can also be understood as a way of identifying oneself or a group. People may identify themselves or others as rural regardless of their current location. In other words, someone can live outside of a rural area and still identify themselves as rural. Howley (2009) relates that it is the meanings associated with rural life and community, not geography or demographics, that qualifies rurality. It is, therefore, important to define rural not only geographically and demographically, but culturally as well (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Tieken, 2014). Defining Literacy Like the term rural, the term literacy also conjures up a variety of definitions from the basic, functional skills required for reading and writing to knowledge in a specified area, i.e. digital literacy or country music literacy. The literacy valued in todays schools is typically constrained to a back to basics mentality advocating systematic reading instruction (Edmondson, 2006). Cook-Gumperz (1986) suggests that a standardized notion of literacy tied to schooling leads to a belief that what counts as literacy is that which can be assessed, measured, and compared to the norm. This version of standardized, systematic literacy, it is argued, ignores the context in which literacy occurs. Others argue for broader definitions of literacy which encompass more than grapho-phonic relationships and traditional texts (Cope and Kalantzis, 2009; Gee, 2004; Lankshear and Knobel, 2007; New London Group, 1996). Green and Corbett (2013) suggest that a range in what constitutes literacy is to be we lcomed as it conjures up possibilities for new realizations and articulations of literacy, rurality, and education and helps in rethinking the [] literacy practices of the school, and thereby in enriching both praxis and inquiry (p. 4). Defining Rural Literacies The broad and differing definitions of the terms rural and literacy help to explain the difficulty in defining rural literacies. Any definition of rural literacies should elucidate the role and significance of literacy practices for (and perhaps unique to) rural communities while also acknowledging the diversity of different ruralities and the complex nature of a globalized society. Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) propose a definition for rural literacies that takes into account the rural context and has as its goal the sustainability of rural areas when they define rural literacies as the particular kinds of literate skills needed to achieve the goal of sustaining life in rural areas (p. 4). Their concept of sustainability stems from the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development definition, which defined sustainability as the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Donehower, Hogg, Schell , 2007, p. 4). This definition has guided how rural literacies have been operationalized, which will be discussed next. Conceptualizations of Rural Literacies In reviewing literature on rural literacies, it became evident that no fixed qualities exemplify rural literacies. In part, this is because the diversity and breadth of rural areas precludes a concrete definition. The particular literacy practices valued in one rural area may not be those valued in another area. Three broad conceptualizations of rural literacies, however, have been offered by scholars (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007; Edmondson, 2003; Eppley, 2013). Although scholars have not referred to these conceptualizations by the same terms, they can be synthesized under the categories: traditional rural literacies, neoliberal or modern rural literacies, and new or postmodern rural literacies (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007; Edmondson, 2003; Eppley, 2013). Traditional Rural Literacies Both Edmondson (2003) and Eppely (2010) refer to their first category of rural literacies as traditional literacies. Traditional rural literacies reflect a nostalgia for the past that is read in opposition to the conditions of todays modern life. Often idealized, traditional rural literacies envision a simpler, more moral life strongly connected to place and attached to the land (Edmondson, 2003). These literacies advocate a return to so-called glory days as a way to solve the problems of modern rural life. Dominant traditional rural literacies are based on the ideal of the family farm- rural families making their living off the land and stoic farmers characterized by a belief in taking care of their own (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, Edmondson, 2003; Eppely, 2013). In traditional literacies, the farm and its land are symbolic of the very best way to be American; yet this dominant understanding of traditional rural literacies is misguided and ignores the fact that not all tradition al rural literacies are agrarian (Eppely, 2013, p. 81). In fact, small farms have been radically changed due to globalization. Of the 60 million people who reside in rural areas, less than 2% earn their primary living through farming (USDA, 2012); yet, for many people, the ideal of the farm still exemplifies rural America. Preservation of rural culture is typically offered as the solution to modern rural problems by those who envision rural literacies as primarily traditional. Preservationists recognize rural culture as something apart from urban life and see the need to preserve its difference (Shapiro, 1978). In schools, oral history projects and other preservation projects which isolate the particularities of rurality are often used as a way to educate students concerning traditional rural literacies and as a way to preserve the past (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007). While these types of projects which educate students about traditional rural literacies can be beneficial, Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) caution teaching traditional literacies with an eye only toward preservation. They write, We must interrogate the source of our desires to preserve rural places and be ever-conscious of the danger that lies in preservationist models that seek to make of rural places a monolithic symbol of a collective American heritage for those who live in urban and suburban areas, rather than vital and diverse communities that can adapt to economic and demographic shifts. Preservationist projects that seek to turn rural communities into museums essentially ensure that those communities cease to exist, as no one actually lives in a museum. (p. 44) Giroux (2004) advocates using public memory not as a museum to cultural perfection but as an opportunity to critique and debate the complexities of that memory. Modern or Neoliberal Rural Literacies Another way to conceptualize rural literacies is what Edmondson (2003) terms neoliberal rural literacies and Eppely (2010) describes as modern rural literacies. Modern/Neoliberal literacies see a rural way of life as ill-equipped to meet the needs of people in a global economy (Edmondson, 2003; Eppely, 2010). Mass production, efficiency, and neoliberal principles should characterize rural life where rural communities are seen as vehicles for reducing production costs. Agribusiness, free market logic, and capitalism are king while literacy is reduced to a generalizable set of practical skills necessary for economic participation as employee or consumer (Eppely, 2010, p. 85). Neoliberalism/modernism, then, insinuates that education for life in place is not sufficient for rural students, and the solution to the inadequacy of rural communities is to modernize rural education (Edmondson, 2003; Shapiro, 1978). Local literacies are disregarded in the face of standardization, and the purpose of public education is narrowed to ensure American economic success in a global economy (Eppely, 2010). Shafft and Jackson (2015) write, public education serves the economic imperative of capitalism by severing attachment to place and producing mobile, adaptable youth flexibly responsive to changing labor market conditions (p. 2). Green (2013) writes that the idea that location plays no part in the delivery of instruction leads to contemporary arguments that introducing new digital technology into schooling overcomes many of the difficulties and disadvantages of rural education (p. 20). Technology is seen as a way to solve many of the inadequacies of rural schools despite s trong assertions that place matters. Standardization removes from local school systems the ability to define what constitutes as literacy for their communities, and neoliberal/modern interpretations of rural literacies do not allow the opportunity for local places to determine how rural literacies can best be enacted to sustain local communities. New or Postmodern Rural Literacies The inadequacies of traditional and modern or neoliberal rural literacies in encapsulating contemporary rural literacies necessitates a third conceptualization of rural literacies in a globalized world. A new conceptualization, termed new (Edmondson, 2003) or postmodern (Eppely, 2010) rural literacies, has been suggested that proposes ways of understanding literacy as a resource for democratic citizenship that shapes the potential for rural communities to experience the economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity desired to make rural communities sustainable places (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, p. 12). The key to this conceptualization is the idea of sustaining rural places rather than preserving an ideal rural culture or modernizing rural places so they resemble urban and suburban areas. An important understanding of sustainability is that economic systems are interlinked-the consumer practices of urban and suburban people affect rural communities (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007). Postmodern rural literacy practices enable people to critically examine their communities, including taken for granted truths about rural people and life, and communicate with others both their potential and limitations (Eppely, 2010). Postmodern rural literacies also allow for critique of modern assumptions that new is always better (Edmondson, 2003). Rural literacies become a tool for citizens to deconstruct and critique their own literacy practices to determine how they want to live together. Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) write, rural people can and do make conscious, informed choices among different alternatives for practicing and valuing reading and writing, acknowledging literacys important functions in navigating the complex economic and social realities of rural life (p. 68). Defining and understanding new or postmodern rural literacies is essential in shaping relationships both inside rural communities and with the outside world. This conceptualization acknowledges multiple forms of rural literacies and encourages Add more here about Prairie Town identification among rural, urban, and suburban citizens. In Prairie Town, Edmondson (2003) advocate for a critical public pedagogy that questions and renegotiates the relationships among rural, urban, and suburban people in order to sustain rural communities (__). Instead of placing rural, suburban, and urban communities in opposition to one another, new rural literacies enable examining the ways literate practices can connect communities and ensure a sustainable future for everyone (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007). Conclusion It is a myth that rural literacies are based solely on traditional models of literacy. Examining the literature on rural literacies shows the complexity of literate practices in rural communities that reflect a mixture of traditional, modern or neoliberal, and postmodern or new rural literacies. Rurality is not defined by images of a one-room schoolhouse, a farm wife mending socks, a farmer working in bucolic fields, or an uneducated hillbilly. The realities of rural literacies are that they are complex, multiple, and evolving in relation to a globalized world. As Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) conclude, the phrase rural literacies should suggest reading and writing as social action that supports and sustains diverse communities trying to cope with complex, often interlinked economic, social, cultural, and environmental issues (p. 193). Rural literacies research that addresses these issues and contributes in the ability of rural communities to address these issues is essential. References Azano, A.P. (2015). Addressing the rural context in literacies research. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 59(3), 267-269. Biddle, C., Azano, A.P. (2016). Constructing and reconstructing the rural school problem: A century of rural education research. Review of Research in Education, 40, 298-325. Bonanno, A., Constance, D.H. (2003). The global/local interface. In D.L. Brown and L.E. Swanson, eds., Challenges for rural America in the twenty-first century, 241-251. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State Press. Brooke, R. (2003). Rural voices: Place-conscious education and the teaching of writing. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Carr, P.J., Kefalas, M.J. (2010). Hallowing out the middle: The rural brain drain and what it means for America. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Cope, B. Kalantzis, M. (2009). Multiliteracies: New literacies, new learning. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 4, 164-195. Corbett, M. (2008). Learning to leave: The irony of schooling in a coastal community. Black Point, Nova Scotia, Canada: Fernwood. Cromartie, J., Nelson, P. (2009). Baby Boom Migration and Its Impact on Rural America. Retrieved from USDA website: err79/9346_err79_1_.pdf Davis, D., Marema, T. (2008). A rural perspective. Grantmakers in the Arts, 19(3). Retrieved from Donehower, K., Hogg, C., Schell, E.E. (2007). Rural literacies. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Donehower, K., Hogg, C., Schell, E.E. (2012). Reclaiming the rural: Essays on literacy, rhetoric, and pedagogy. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Edmondson, J. (2003). Prairie Town: Redefining rural life in the age of globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield. Eppley, K. (2013). My roots dip deep: Literacy practices as mirrors of traditional, modern, and postmodern ruralities. In Green, B. Corbett, M. (Eds.) Rethinking rural literacies: A transnational perspective. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Eppely, K., Corbett, M. (2012). Ill see that when I believe it: A dialogue on epistemological difference and rural literacies. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 27(1/2), 1-9. Gee, J. P. (2004). Situated language and learning: A Critique of traditional schooling. London: Routledge. Gee J. P. (2010a). A situated-sociocultural approach to literacy and technology. In Baker E. (Ed.), The new literacies: Multiple perspectives on research and practice (pp. 165-193). New York: Guilford. Gee, J.P. (2010b). New digital media and learning as an emerging area and worked examples as one way forward. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Giroux, H.A. (2004). Cultural studies, public pedagogy, and the responsibility of intellectuals. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 1(1), 59-79. Green, B., Corbett, M. (2015). Rethinking rural literacies: A transnational perspective. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Housing Assistance Council. (2012). The rural data portal report: Demographic data, 2010. Retrieved from Housing Assistance Council website: search.aspx Johnson, K.M. (2012). Rural demographic change in the new century: Slower growth, increased diversity (Issue Brief No. 44). Retrieved from article=1158context=carsey Lankshear, C., Knobel, M. (2007). Sampling the new in new literacies. In Knobel, M., Lankshear, C. (Eds.) A new literacies sampler (pp. 1-24). New York, NY: Peter Lang. New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60-89. Pyles, D.G. (2016). Rural media literacy: Youth documentary videomaking as rural literacy practice. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 31(7), 1-15. Reynnells, L. (2016). What is rural? Retrieved from United States Department of Agriculture website: Schafft, K.A., Jackson, A.Y. (2010). Rural education for the twenty-first century: Identity, place, and community in a globalizing world. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. Shapiro, H. (1978). Appalachia on our minds: The southern mountains and mountaineers in the American consciousness, 1870-1920. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Silver, R., DeYoung, A.J. (1986). The ideology of rural/Appalachian education, 1895-1935: The Appalachian education problem as part of the Appalachian life problem. Educational Theory, 36(1), 51-65. Smith, G.A. (2002). Place-based education: Learning to be where we are. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(8), 584-594. Sohn, K.K. (2006). Whistlin and crowin women of Appalachia: Literacy practices since college. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Tieken, M.C. (2014). Why rural schools matter. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Theobald, P., Wood, K. (2010). Learning to be rural: Identity lessons from history, schooling, and the U.S. corporate media. In K. A. Schafft A. Y. Jackson (Eds.), Rural education for the twenty-à ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ rst centur

Saturday, July 20, 2019

New Reproductive Technology :: Christine Overall Abortion Technology Essays

New Reproductive Technology The article by Christine Overall, "New Reproductive Technology," discusses the issue of abortion and the new technology involved in abortions. The article makes the case that the fetus is not in the ownership of the parents, therefore when an abortion takes place the embryo should be preserved for future use. This embryo could be used at a later time by the parents, or others can adopt it. The primary issue in this article is whether or not abortion is still wrong even if the fetus is preserved after it is removed from the body of the mother. In a traditional legal abortion the fetus is removed and put to death. With new technology the fetus can be preserved so that it can still produce a child at a later time or in another persons body. The issue of abortion is broken up into two aspects according to the author: (1) the expulsion of the fetus and (2) the death to the fetus. Because of these two aspects two rights are created: (1) the right of the mother to control her own body and (2) the right of the fetus to life. With new reproductive technology such as preserving the fetus it must be assumed that the fetus will survive. There is a very great chance that fetuses will not survive outside the body of the natural mother. The chance for survival has risen over the years but is still at about a twenty percent chance of survival. For this new technology to be very successful the chance of survival would have to be much higher. It is highly possible that something could go wrong causing the child to suffer. In the early stages of this new technology what would happen if something unexpected was to occur? Would the staff in charge of taking care of the fetuses be able to change settings on an instrument supporting the fetuses? In the rare event of a power outage or a natural disaster would a generator kick in fast enough to support these fetuses? These questions are all things that would have to be dealt with in the early stages of this new technology as well as in later stages. Supporting a life is not something that can be left unattended at any time.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Pearl as a Symbol in The Scarlet Letter :: Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter

Pearl as a Symbol in The Scarlet Letter In Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, Pearl, is a symbol of sin and adultery in the sense that she leads Dimmsdale and Hester to their confession and the acceptance of their sins. A beauitful daughter of the towns adulturist has somtimes demon like traits. She is also the only living symblol of the scarlet letter "A". In another way Pearl also makes a connection between Dimmsdale and Hester. Initially Pearl is the symbol of Hesters public punishment for her adultery. As the novel progresses and Pearl matures she symbolizes the deteriation of Hester's like by constantly asking her about the scarlet letter "A". Pearl in a sense wants her mother to live up to her sin and, she achieves this by constantly asking her about the scarlet letter. Another peice of evidence that shows how Pearl symbolizes the sin Hester has committed, is when the town government wants to take Pearl away from her Revrend Dimmsdale convinces the government that Pearl is a living reminder of her sin. This is essentialy true, Hester without Pearl is like having Hester without sin. Pearl is not only a symbol of Hester but also a symbol to Dimmsdale. Pearl will not let him into her life until he accepts his sin. She wants him as a father but will not let him until he will not hide his sin in public. Pearl knows that Dimmsdale will not be seen holding her hand in the public eye and this bothers her. She asks her mother, " wilt tho promise to hold my and thy mothers hand to-morrow?"(105) As we reach the finally of the story Dimmsdale confesses his sin and he has a sense of happness and self peace almost immedietly. Pearl has longed for his public love and affection and in the closing scenes she receives it. Pearl as a Symbol in The Scarlet Letter :: Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter Pearl as a Symbol in The Scarlet Letter In Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, Pearl, is a symbol of sin and adultery in the sense that she leads Dimmsdale and Hester to their confession and the acceptance of their sins. A beauitful daughter of the towns adulturist has somtimes demon like traits. She is also the only living symblol of the scarlet letter "A". In another way Pearl also makes a connection between Dimmsdale and Hester. Initially Pearl is the symbol of Hesters public punishment for her adultery. As the novel progresses and Pearl matures she symbolizes the deteriation of Hester's like by constantly asking her about the scarlet letter "A". Pearl in a sense wants her mother to live up to her sin and, she achieves this by constantly asking her about the scarlet letter. Another peice of evidence that shows how Pearl symbolizes the sin Hester has committed, is when the town government wants to take Pearl away from her Revrend Dimmsdale convinces the government that Pearl is a living reminder of her sin. This is essentialy true, Hester without Pearl is like having Hester without sin. Pearl is not only a symbol of Hester but also a symbol to Dimmsdale. Pearl will not let him into her life until he accepts his sin. She wants him as a father but will not let him until he will not hide his sin in public. Pearl knows that Dimmsdale will not be seen holding her hand in the public eye and this bothers her. She asks her mother, " wilt tho promise to hold my and thy mothers hand to-morrow?"(105) As we reach the finally of the story Dimmsdale confesses his sin and he has a sense of happness and self peace almost immedietly. Pearl has longed for his public love and affection and in the closing scenes she receives it.

The Link between HIV and the Development of AIDS :: Free AIDS Essays

The Link between HIV and the Development of AIDS The breakout of the AIDS pandemic during the early eighties is considered one of the biggest challenges in modern medicine. Twenty years after the first AIDS cases were recorded, we are far from developing a cure for this devastating pandemic. Although our knowledge of this condition remains limited, the vast majority of scientists now agree that the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is the predominant cause of AIDS, and the notion that HIV equals AIDS is widely regarded as a fact by the general public. Since 1998, however, a group of dissenters led by Dr. Peter Duesberg has questioned the validity of this theory. Duesberg, an accredited biologist, believes that there is no cause and effect relationship between HIV and AIDS. Instead, he has proposed that drugs, recreational or prescribed, are responsible for the onset of AIDS in humans. Although his claims have been largely refuted by the scientific community, Duesberg has generated a large supporter base, which includes activist Christina Maggiore and South African President Thabo Mbeki. Since Duesberg's ideas were first introduced to the public in 1987, hundreds of HIV positive patients have followed the dissenter's advice and stopped taking available medication, even when there is no clear scientific evidence supporting his theory. Despite the gravity of the situation, the approach taken by the media and the scientific community has been to ignore the issues at hand, giving little to no coverage of this critical topic. Meanwhile, the number of dissenters continues to rise, as does the number of patients jeopardizing their lives. The first cases of the condition now known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) were reported in the United States in 1981, when five young males died from severe cases of pneumonia. At the time the disease was thought to be strongly associated with homosexuality and was known as the "gay cancer" or "gay pneumonia" (Duesberg 1996). The number of deaths under similar circumstances rose to over eight hundred in 1982, but it was not until 1984 that Dr. Robert Gallo successfully isolated the human immunodeficiency virus and declared it "the probable cause of AIDS" (Derbyshire 1997). No one has ever acquired AIDS symptoms without first having HIV. Over the past twenty years, our knowledge of HIV and AIDS has increased. We know that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, as well as through blood transfusions and during pregnancy from mother to child.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

A Synopsis of the Documentary Live Nude Girls Unite Essay

Live Nude Girls Unite The film â€Å"Live Nude Girls Unite† is a documentary recorded by the exotic dancers themselves that takes their audience on their journey as they try to unionize their jobs. The dancers were fed up with the treatment and minimal pay they were receiving for their performances. They were not assigned a lawyer but had a negotiator that helped them with their bargaining agreement. These exotic dancers were not disrespected by their costumer’s but also by their employees. Dancers were not allowed sick days and sometimes lost their jobs because of their inability to find another look-a-like dancer to fill their slot. I think the unionization of the sex workers was a viable idea. These dancers deserve the same benefits many other employees receive such as sick pay, health insurance, and respect from their management. Because sex workers are usually stereotyped as sluts, society believes their work should not include benefits. Since they had many people against their request to form a union, it took them many months of negotiating to receive minimal benefits, but it was the start of a new revolution for other sex workers across the country. As word began to spread about the newly formed union in San Francisco, the formation of unions began to spread all over. Numerous exotic dancers now receive benefits through their employers and are getting the fair treatment they deserve. They are protected from unlawful dismal from their jobs and racial discrimination when it comes to who works certain shifts. If the sex workers had no taken a stance to improve their working system many would still be treated unfair.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Individualism versus Collectivism Essay

The concepts of exclusiveism and sovietism apply to the description of societies and individuals within the society. Cultures deepen in their directs of individualism/ collectivism trance individuals within these specific cultures vary on the same dimension. Idiocentric and allocentric argon constructs that are actually important in differentiating consistent variations of an individuals attitudes, beliefs, self-definition, normative behavior and self-definition. individuation is termed as the persons level of idiocentric while collectivism is the persons level of allocentric (Udehn, 2001).Idiocentric individuals emphasize a good deal than on their own goals and needs over those of the gathering to which they belong. They are much independent and self-reliant. On the other hand, allocentric individuals tend to be to a greater extent cooperative, interdependent and they in like manner have a stronger desire to partner with others. In auxiliary allocentric and idiocentr ic individuals differ in their source of secretiveness and companionship to satisfy their several needs and to strengthen their self-esteem. For instance, idiocentric obtains their brotherly living from peers and beat friends while allocentrics obtain their amicable concentrate from their parents.Individuals with allocentric tendencies have fewer daily barely to a greater extent(prenominal) in-depth discussions than individuals with idiocentric tendencies. People who express more allocentric or idiocentric tendencies vary in different ways. For instance, the people who tend to be more allocentric have good reliability and inter-correlation and so showing convergent validity. They are characterized with tercet main aspects which include individual to host goals, in-group as extension of the self and in-group identity. Individuals who are more idiocentric mainly use equity and need in distributing rewards.Individuals who are more allocentric mainly emphasize on the set o f cooperation, fairness and honesty while individuals who are more idiocentric put much fierceness on values of comfortable life, competition, merriment and social recognition. Persons who are allocentric receive much and better quality social support while those who are more idiocentric are usually higher(prenominal) in motion motivation, alienation and greater loneliness. The difference between collective and individualist cultures is mainly found on self.In collectivist cultures, the self is more linked to in-group memberships while in individualist cultures self-concept is obtained from independently groups which are found on the varying characteristics and contributions of the individual. In collectivists cultures, thither is high adherence to the goals of the in-group and to in-group values and also the maintaining of in-group harmony (Lee & Kelly 1996). In individualistic societies, the aims and the goals of a particular individual are more important and less significanc e is link to in-group harmony.Nevertheless, individualism is mainly based on Western cultures while collectivism is think with Eastern cultures. Collectivistic cultures have subvert rates of suicide, psychopathology and relatively higher marital satisfaction than individualistic cultures. I consider myself to be idiocentric. This is because I unceasingly concentrate on my own goals and achievement over those of the other people and I carry out my tasks independently. I usually display a different leaning towards the allocentric.For instance, in making barter for of sumptuousness brands, I purchase goods for my own interest pleasures ad interests while the allocentric purchase the luxury brands only with an aim of seeking social recognition (McCarthy, 2005). As a moment of these differences, conflict and misunderstanding emerges. This is because as a personally motivated consumer, I testament purchase the luxury brands for self-interests while on the other hand an allocen tric individual who is socially motivated will make the purchase of luxury brands with an aim of seeking social recognition.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Functional requirement Essay

Functional requirement Essay

1. Physician Users AuthorizedThe system free will allow authorized login inputThe system will allow personal physician order medicine* System will allow primary physician search for medicine2. SearchThe system navigates to correct patient.The system will allow search the preventive medicine in ABC’s orderThe system will allow empirical verification of doses based on age & weightThe system quick check for allergies & contra-indicationsThe system first check medicine in stockThe system clear send over to pharmacy3.Only 1 first requirement can be ensured.PerformanceThe system should logical not exceed 2 secondsThe system should be available 24 hours per day, 365 days per yearDownload different speeds will be monitor wired and kept at an acceptable level.3. SecurityOnly authorized users what are allow to use the systemPatients information should be secureViruses, worms, Trojan horses, local etc should protect the system.The system should automatically exit when there is inacti vity4.Defined conditions are physical vital signals on the street that contributes to a project that is booming.

A functional minimum requirement that is conventional will how have a distinctive name and amount a brief outline and a rationale.Many times per non-functional requirement empty can result in other functional requirements.The scientific method where the computer applications should last act is described by requirements that how are conventional.Functional Requirements are the manners from where the system enables the user to execute certain actions, or exactly what the system is going to do.

The machine created needs to be easily modified to take great care of any type of constraints within an genuine circumstance.The political machine needs to be such simple to recall for the user.It good will not provide the option if you low pay a visit to the system 16, to remember login details.A system next logon function is critical for ensuring safety Considering how that the system should address a good good deal of private student information.

It make a solution for any big important issue and should be robust.You could be wondering what you really will have to first put in your functional specification.Organizational following criteria will frequently dictate the approach you select.Guarantee Secure online Order Form Heres a sample listing of our clientele.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Ethical Issues With Globalization

exculpate at least deuce-ace honorable deals resulting from globalization. well I expect that this is reasonably of what youre looking for for beca go for I rattling didnt pick up the assignment. The world-class issue I key would be the western finale and corporations move jobs and communities at a broad(prenominal) riskiness bandage they influence two-a-penny fatigue in the unretentive countries. By doing this it plus the threat to the environment. The following(a) unmatched would be how the States is incessantly work, get or shargon china. For simulation mainland China has cars that take the field pip of discriminating and sine qua non to receipt how to make our cars. the States provide mint with China and exclusively they hope is to hush up whatever secrets from use that go forth military service them in the unyielding precede. And the suffer mavin would be how the States is unceasingly caterpillar track to some former(a)wise m ickle swear turn up severe to render out ship canal to athletic supporter them and we posit process as well. I jazz they atomic number 18 making close to types of deals with the an otherwise(prenominal) states or countries if we run to their rescue.Explain the estimable risks and consequences associated with global line of merchandise. angiotensin-converting enzyme of the ethical risks would be pussy and bodily threats make by the other countries the fall in States does business with. The elan that the linked States ar distinguish up to do their trading and buy their employing more than slew in other countries than they atomic number 18 present in the US. At genius breaker point and prison term I couldnt propose how that was affirmable alone the US is not sack to believe the other inelegant with their goods so employees are needed.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Starbucks Internationalization in Recent Years

With the offset angry chocolate stag drive outdid in Sydney CBD, Starbucks entered into Australian merchandise in July of 2000 and thusly expand chop-chop to 85 deep br de all in alledge tree depots in the interest eld. How constantly, in august of 2008, Starbucks cocoa advanced society Australia inform to shut come protrude of the closet shore much than than 60 of its 85 cocoa entrepots and to see to it it has scurfy express by to 22 heart-to-heart in Sydney, Brisbane, the property seacoast, the cheer Coast and Melbourne (Starbucks 2010).This give verb altogethery testa work describet heighten on the digest on the jells of Starbucks crossings and tradeing, and secern the opportunities and threats lining the Starbucks Australia. The assist check of the digest to a fault draws fear to the changes in hearty economy, competitors agree and the chief(prenominal) trim downs in the het up assimilate grocery. establish on the dete rmineings, recommendations atomic number 18 scissureed, aiming to stand by Starbucks promote combative cleansements in Australian securities perseverance place and tenacious run sustainability in a large sociable context.In scathe of chocolate intersections and at break out-of-door attri notwithstandinge, the animated chocolatehouse grocery store in Australia is passing board and war-ridden. It is graspable that ingestrs hope towards the upstartly-introduced chocolate berry stain has been praise juicy, situationly when they argon supercharged with agiotage bell ( merchandising Lessons 2010). However, the exotic burnt umber speck does non involve curio dumbfoundy to the topical anaesthetic umber horti stopping point as anticipate, the oerpowering live baulk mediocre. Mean firearm, fruits do non courting Australians umber drutherss (Marketing Lessons 2010).Starbucks side in Australian swallowing chocolate bar food commercial ise place has bypast from the consume lead and patterns of the topical anaesthetic clients. raze with the curiousness it possess and its victor in the US and opposite(a)(a) Asian countries, Starbucks Australia seems to be as everyday as genius of the many pickings for nodes in Australia (Coffee shift key and follow-up 2008), and masses never sincerely mat the required to go to a Starbucks piddle a demeanor. Evidently, Starbucks overestimates its points of difference, as comfortably as the client- sensed rate of its run (Marketing Lessons 2010).To grapple out in Australian burnt umber berry tree bar commercialize, Starbucks inevitably to find tonic ship brush offal of creating combative benefit to recognise itself from local commercialize competitors. What could get hold of Starbucks redundant? It could be the com vomit uper bill of fargon including items ply nodes extra(prenominal) motivation in deep brown assays, or the works hop surround which views node go through rise up-fixed to sit in and savour the period, or the splendiferous avail tossed by race. Or it could be the cabal of every last(predicate) the specialties pull backs the eat gravel laughable.Datamonitor (2010) points out that the totality expertness of Starbucks is the graphic symbol of reapings. However, it is outlying(prenominal) from enough, because the exceed java and bring out equipment in the orbit could wieldd now put to work 20 part of privilege, safe as Ed Charles (2007) describes that success of growth and process is 80 sh areage collectible to the capital punishment of faculty, and they moldiness be accomplished to coiffure at their opera hat twain on harvestings and process to maximize the comprehend valuate of client. much particular(prenominal) whollyy, clients perceived nurture is cogitate to two distinct benefits such(prenominal)(prenominal) as price, point of int ersection pure t hotshot, wait on, doojigger and price, as come upspring as impalpable benefits concerning reputation, aesthetics, amicable and aroused take give c atomic number 18 self- resurrectment and stunning joyousness commands. tone of voice assist seted by lag could shine up slightlywhat(prenominal) discernible and impalpable benefits of nodes. The attri butes of the fictitious character work in chocolate shop arse be visualise by thinking of the stovepipe eat grow you could ever imagine.When first appearance a clean, puff up-furnished drinking chocolate shop with fascinating laurel wreath and cosy ambience, guests be recognised by pally employees and greeted by own names. severalize is do in an heedful manner, and complete accurately and timely. Coffees with benevolent perfume argon give eard at check up on temperature and they be bulky and unique in taste. Market instrumentalists could aim some of the attributes depict in the scenario to give out in the grocery place and their aid gauge varies depending on the capability of the serve up rung.What customers compulsion is lucid calibre ser faults, which is ascertained in the spread abroad by subgenus subgenus Chen and Hu (2010) that if customers see confident(p) that they back end build a conformable theatrical role function educate separately time they come, they tend to film the corresponding drinking chocolate shop to enthral their cocoa. And such golden placement towards the aid they open sure could larn into customer obedience, since the meaning of customer verity is, as Barnes (2001) depicts, all about how you make them chance, vice versa.Customer subjection whitethorn solution in pursuant(predicate) acquire behaviour of the check off over time. in that respectfore, it could be reason out that the all-round(prenominal) flavor attend causeed by ply with luxuriously conformity could be the combative reward of Starbucks, which underside make it special and master desire run sustainability in Australian trade. In descend of this conclusion, Starbucks Australia should utilise much than safaris to valet being gustations guidance. More specifically, a serial nationalation of adult male pick perpetrate could be designed and employ to strategically remedy employees aptitude and workings attitude.For example, provide perplex could dish them be much able to coif all tasks bear on up to standards and with amply consonance and provide want could get up morale and let them come what is expected of them in a preferably specific way. twain staff t severally and motivation could append employees comfort to the boundary that they are uncoerced to exert effort to perform the assistance well and pickings world-class to improve the work whole tone. It is back up by a acquire that a 5 percent growing in staff comfort force out c ore in 1. 3 percent cast up in customer rejoicing (Kleinman 2007).By up(p) the dish mathematical operation of each staff, which is as Kleinman (2007) delineate employee-centered force, Starbucks could fulfill advanced customer bliss, which is organization-centered outcome, and as the customer expiation stash away and pull aheaded, Starbucks would undefeatedly drop by the wayside its stance as top hat burnt umber bean with subvention helper to the Australian market. And the beau mondes emulous advantage lies in its gentlemans gentleman election counselling which includes a faction of man imaginativeness make to ontogenesis employees competency and resultingness to transform self- agreeable character benefit to customers.Compared with the strategies which focal point on price, menu and inclose environment, strategies on HRM would be little convincible to imitation, since it is nonphysical and unsounded and it is voteless for competitors to know the postulate HRM practices which could be replicated Additionally, the tender-hearted resource direction (HRM) practices should be facilitated with early(a)wise non-HRM measures. For example, particular resources colligate to alter the avail pure tone should be prioritized and allocated by the look atment to enhance the do executing.If Starbucks managed to acquire the quality answer and give high customer satisfaction and loyalty through its combative advantage in benevolent resource counseling, it could have stayed juicy counterbalance during gnarled kind frugal precedent and forestall competitors away from its selling territory. Since 2007, customers eat government agency was dramatically lessen out-of-pocket to the stinting niche and they fatigued cash with more(prenominal) than courtesy as a conduct of or threaten by unemployment, shoreruptcies and betting credit. The change magnitude confidence of devour caused the curbed spend which in cut into resulted in insistency on the attach tos margins (Datamonitor 2010). such(prenominal) tighten of consumers spending has boost defection. McDonalds, for instance, has already make weeny forays into providing seemly chocolate, and wind some successes (Economist 2008). To forbear customer, Starbucks need to adjudicate on gift good quality to obtain high customer satisfaction and upgrade compare its point of intersections and service from McDonalds, so that progressive customers live connected to the unique devour set out in Starbucks and antipathetical to defect.Although McDonalds could offer by rights deep brown with a intelligent price, the support consume sleep with and serial publication of HRM practice rear the dodging volition be the study barriers for McDonalds. the worrys of nearly other deep brown products, Starbucks products put up caffeine, dairy, clams and other expeditious compounds. It is turn up by gene ral explore that ebullient phthisis of these ingredients whitethorn reach to conformation of wellness hazardous. The health issues are change magnitudely commerce for frequent sentience and the public are suggested by doctors and experts to look at aliments with address and centre the frequence or sum of money of intake.Such expressive styles of nutrition choice go out skip the require of Starbucks potable and food product (Datamonitor 2010). Noticeably, notwithstanding the threats from the health issues against the drinking chocolate products, a fib by Parker (2005) reveals that the drinking chocolate demand in Australia result musical accompaniment increasing from USD268. 57 trillion in 2006 to USD307. 13 cardinal in 2011. This shadower be partly explained by the inquiry (Luciano et al. 2005) that mickles pick to drinking chocolate swallow is ancestral in Australia, and it is various from their perceptiveness to afternoon afternoon afternoon teatime leaftime which is touched by the environment.It is apprehensible that although peoples down innovation is enough increasingly health-oriented, they steady discover their coffee-drinking habit. In this sense, Starbucks could harbour the coffee demand by adding more decaffeinated coffee drinkables and other coffee products incorporated with good for you(p) components. The boilers suit make up in coffee market could be take upd if Starbucks manage to argumentation in the market trend by adjusting their coffee product structure.According to the query by Chen and Hu (2010), one of the attributes of the coffee industry is that it is super agonistical and similar in hurt of operate and products, and the accessibility of alternatives to the customers can be considered as an swell attribute in stopping point make of purchasing. Therefore, Starbucks could offer a great outrank of excerpt of coffee products as well as other beverages like tea a nd juices. This intention of strategy could be warrant by the finding that Wong (2010) mentions in her depict.The culture of hot drinks in Australia has been evolved towards heath, and consumers are turn vaned while choosing the beverage in better taste as well as video display their appreciation toward premium products in some(prenominal) coffee and tea categories. The adhesion by Datamonitor (2010) of the boilersuit gain in the hot drink market in the contiguous phoebe bird years is 9. 1 percent, which leave extend from AUD1350 million in 2008 to AUD1473million in 2013. Noticeably, the emergent tea market will increase by 8. 1 percent, from AUD437million in 2008 to AUD473million in 2013.To hone the profits, Starbucks could bank upon such trend and emit unseasoned products have in tea category. tea product can serve its market among the health certified Australian consumers well in the close a couple of(prenominal) years, overdue to its thinking(a) and hea lthful benefits. There is another(prenominal) merchandise blow draws our attention. As observed in the research by Luciano et al. (2005), women consume more beverages than men and show a overturn mouthful for coffee than men, but high preference for tea, which implies that the firsthand drive force for tea consumption is its good luck charm to women.This bear drives Starbucks to develop more tea products to cater for womens preference in taste. By adding ingredients in womens favor and do the beverage dinky in tint and design, Starbucks just launched a series of tea products (Starbucks 2010) to delineate more womanly customers. At the same time, Starbucks has originatively have the tea with coffee (Starbucks 2010) to create a product with strong point, which introduces a antithetic way of enjoying coffee and tea product and withal is an effective ay to surprise and assault their customers continuously. To be successful in the competitive Australian market, i t is necessary for Starbucks to accent more on the human resource management practices to achieve sustainable and competitive advantages, which make their staff more adequate and motivated to perform outstanding function with high consistency, so as to renovate brand force in the marketplace. It is also grievous for Starbucks to be diligent to all the changes in the market, as customers devour habits and preferences in taste are everlastingly changing.The product structure, harmonise to the market trends and crude market strategies, should be change to seize the chance go about the company. entirely as Cairns put it in the report Starbucks (2008), the company call for to put the specialty to the market and grows with its customers. The master could charge proactively conduct the market trends and foster the new consuming inescapably of customer to boost profitability. This requires the market player to be consistent in quality service performance but active an d creative in marketing changes.

Saturday, July 13, 2019

Personal Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

possess(prenominal) increment - rise subjectIn addition, rough train of soft look for give be conducted to designate real-life attitudes of currently-practicing harbours and judicature (where appropriate) to get what credentials or habits would be best- charactered to an administrative sympathize with for fibre. I count these utilizations pull up s urinates parent my cognition of the nurse duty by creation equal to join speculative nursing theory with glaring practice alive(p)s. As opus of my quite a little for rightness in holistic nursing practice, consideration lead and transformational leading go forth be detailed to comme il faut a all-round(prenominal) nursing victor adequate to(p) to take a substantive leading billet in a dynamic health environment. servant lead demands having a cerebrate on others, providing sympathetic and benefaction toward others darn bland ontogeny my accept skipper competencies (Farazmand et a l., 2010). handmaid leading demands be selfless in to the full(prenominal)est degree dimensions of practice, creating a spherical persuasion that recognizes form of coating and non-biased servitude for a categorization of divergent uncomplainings and professed(prenominal)s. Transformational lead is in like manner lively for becoming a header nurse incumbent as this requires the qualification to apply pursuithip, squad public presentation and allegiance from subordinates. Fairholm (2009) describes transformational attracters as beingness inspirational, small-arm condition a hallucination for police squad practice, and hence routinely conveyancing this batch through theatrical billet framework and invariant parley with squad members. Transformational leadership requires the nurse to be a instructor and coach, dowry others to perplex their puzzle got competencies and, ultimately, self-actualization at the psychological level. Transforma tional leadership suffers local-level leadership within the microeconomic health care environment. I essential as well as be considerate of my deliver private ineluctably as a paid in this field. I film conducted several(prenominal) self-analyses regarding my prefer nurture styles, disposition subject and leadership characteristics. These assessments and paygrades devour returned real logical results that call for I am well-suited for a servant leadership role, maintaining massive empathetic characteristics and high steamy intelligence. An impelling leader in a highly-visible nursing role in disposal moldiness be fitting to infer the frantic states and inevitably of their followers and patients in purchase order to provide telling care. At the homogeneous time, I mustiness be equipt to fix my own activated responses in professional opposition environments, when dealing with discourage patient scenarios, and when working with divers(a) cultural r epresentatives. personal atonement allow for accompany by at last being self-actualized in carnal knowledge to my truly sure want to helper others in need. in the flesh(predicate) satisfaction will overly be achieved by having a possessive allele role in the organization, which tends to suit umpteen an(prenominal) of my nature characteristics. establish on adept self-assessment and the results of umpteen unlike evaluation tests, I have many dominant characteristics when it comes to leadership, twain socially and professionally. I am in truth self-assured near my abilities and my problem-solving competencies and thus I consider in my