Saturday, August 31, 2019

Contemporary Social Work Theory and Issues Essay

Assignment Title To what extent can social work be adequately conceptually understood in terms of a position at the interface between social exclusion and social inclusion? To what extent can social work be adequately conceptually understood in terms of a position at the interface between social exclusion and social inclusion? According to the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) the social work profession ‘promotes the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance wellbeing. Utilising theories of human behaviour and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments’ (IFSW, 2000). However the social work role is questioned, in both its operational approach, and in terms of where it is positioned at the interface of individuals that are excluded and included within today’s society. This essay will aim, using relevant theories and concepts, to provide the opinion of the author, regarding their notion of how the social work role is delivered, and moreover, grasp an understanding of where this role is located, either working with the socially excluded or leaning towards the concept of inclusion. The term social exclusion was coined in France by Rene Lenoir in 1974, (Gore, 1995, Silver, 1995, Haan, 1998, cited in Islam, 2005: 4) and, in his opinion, referred to people who were omitted from employment-based social security systems. His reference to the excluded consisted of the ‘mentally and physically handicapped, suicidal people, aged individuals, abused children, drug addicts, delinquents, single parents, multi-problem households, marginal asocial persons and other social misfits’ (Silver, 1994-95: 532). Social exclusion did not replace poverty as a concept but referred to the ‘broader process of social disintegration – an increasing rupture of the bond between the individual and society’ (Islam, 2005: 4). As Lenoir suggests, social exclusion transpires in many forms; race, poverty and deprivation, employment, and class, and retains varied definitions. According to Sheppard (2006), the best definition that provides an understanding of all the dimensions of social exclusion was submitted by the Child Poverty Action Group (Walker and Walker, 1997, cited in Sheppard, 2006) ‘social exclusion refers to the dynamic process of being shut out, fully or partially, from any of the social, economic, political and cultural systems which determine the social integration of society’. However, the model of ‘social exclusion’ has only been in use in the UK for a relatively short time, and its extensive practice could indicate that it ‘describes a phenomenon that already existed, but lacked a suitable name’ (Page 2000: 4). Marx, for example, refers to the ‘underclasses in contemporary capitalist society. According to Marx members of the proletariat are compelled to sell their labour power to the bourgeoisie in order to ‘attain for themselves the means to their own subsistence’ (Ashley and Or enstein, 1998). Marx was aware of the growth of the middle classes, situated at the interface of proletariat on the one side and the bourgeoisie on the other, thus increasing the security and power of the upper class. Subsequently this produced a different division of the working class, Marx’s ‘lumpenproletariat’, for example; the migrant population, the indigents, the unemployed and those in poverty and deprivation, individuals that today would be the termed ‘socially excluded’. According to Marx, class structures are primary in determining the main social classes, the focal forms of struggle within societies, and the life experiences of people in these classes. However, secondary forms of inequality and oppression occur within each class, and these may take the form of racial and ethnic inequalities, or gender inequalities. Marxist feminists argue that, ‘within any class, women are less advantaged than men in their access to material goods, power, status, and possibilities for self-actualisation and the causes of this inequality lie in the organisation of capitalism itself’ (Ritzier, 1992: 468-9). , However, as Marxist theory distillates on class division, and is concentrated on the macro level only, this view of Social Work’s position at the interface of exclusion and inclusion is not conclusive. The Social Worker would be seen as working more in line with the ‘lumpenproletariat’ and not providing services to the ‘proletariat’ and certainly not the ‘bourgeoisie’, therefore places social work at the heart of the excluded and not the included. Moreover as social work from the Marxist perspective, is placed firmly within the macro level, the individualism and person centred approach that the social worker aims to provide the client cannot be fulfilled, as to do so would mean to be working at the micro level which the Marxist view discounts. The Functionalist stance referencing the concept of social exclusion is to describe a group, or groups, of people who are excluded from the normal activities of their society in multiple ways, thu s deviating from their societies ‘norms’ of behaviour (Sheppard, 2006). A functionalist perspective of social exclusion is, therefore, focussed upon the excluded persons being deviant and non- conforming to social norms. However, unlike the Marxist perspective, the Functionalist would concentrate on the social worker operational on the macro and the micro level, working with the individual, and also taking the clients wider social systems in to account, for example; family, friends, school and working environment. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), and later Talcott Parsons (1951), suggests that societies were social ‘systems’, made up of interrelated social elements, and that these systems were ‘moral’ entities. Durkheim and Parsons argue that all human associations give rise to expectations in patterns of conduct, therefore producing restrictions on how a person should or shouldn’t behave. Hence emerges ‘collective consciousness’ which, in turn, constrains an individual and obliges them to act in particular ways ( Cuff, Sharrock and Francis, 1992). One way is that norms ‘effectively discipline individuals above all through their moral authority, relatively independent of any instrumentally significant consequences of conformity with them’ (Parsons 1951, p. 37). The other is that there is a tendency for individuals to ‘develop and maintain attachment to the same integrated system of norms and to find solidarity in the pursuit of shared goals’ (Parsons 1934: 295, Peacock 1976: 265). The Functionalist, therefore, would suggest that social work is very much concerned with the deviants in society, the individuals that do not conform to society’s norms. However this notion too could be contested, as, if the social work profession concerns itself with the deviants of society, the client could be at risk from labelling and of being further excluded by the social worker themselves. Sheppard (2006), asserts that social work is, in fact, exclusionary and that social workers ‘cannot engage in integration and inclusion because its innate functions involve labelling and marginalising people’ ( Sheppard, 2006). Functionalism also neglects the negative functions of an event, such as divorce, and does not encourage people to take an active role in changing their social environment, even when such change may benefit them. Conflict Theory also sees society as a social system, but unlike Functionalism who perceives society held together by social consensus or cohesion, Conflict Theory interprets society as held together through conflict and coercion. From this perspective, society is made up by competing interest groups, some more powerful than others (Andersen and Taylor, 2008). When Conflict Theorists look at society, they see the social domination of subordinate groups through the power, authority, and coercion of dominant groups. Randall Collins (1941) su ggests that power and status are fundamental relational dimensions at the micro level of social interaction and perhaps at the macro level as well. Collins concludes that coercion and the ability to force others to behave a certain way are the primary basis of conflict in society (Turner, 2000). Therefore in the conflict view, the elite members of the dominant groups create the rules for success and opportunity in society, often denying subordinate groups such success and opportunities, thus generating social division, and creating social exclusion, at the macro and the micro levels of society. In contrast to the conflict perspective, the strengths approach concentrates on building clients strong points in order for them to become empowered and initiate social change. Cowger and Snively (2001) favour the empowerment perspective as ‘central to social work practice, and see client strengths as providing the fuel and energy for that empowerment’ (Miley et al, 2004:91). Empowerment can be defined as ‘a construct that links individual strengths and competencies, natural helping systems, and proactive behaviours to social policy and social change’ (Rappaport, 1981, cited in Zimmerman, 1995: 569). However if the social worker is operational more within the context of empowering the socially excluded, rather than the included, what of the power and authority that a social worker holds over the client as an agent of social control? Moreover, if a social workers role involves empowering the client to take control of their own lives, how does the power transfer from the authoritative figure of the social worker, to the deprived, socially excluded client? Indeed, would the client want to be empowered, or be able to hold rational thought, capacity, to be open to empowerment? Rojek (1989) argues that empowering clients to focus on capacity building and not in making changes directly to the oppressive social structures affecting the client, places responsibility on the client to change whilst still facing social obstacles. Therefore, for the social worker to effectively practice empowerment, the client is presumed to have adequate rational capacity, and have only one risk factor influencing their lives. This is difficult, as, from researching this essay, it has become apparent, that the socially excluded individuals that social work operates with, has more than one disadvantage, problem, or need that they require support to cope with. Perhaps the term enablement would be more fitting than the harsh, power/powerless concept of empowerment and subsequently, that the social workers role should concentrate on maintaining the client According to Davies (1994: 58) ‘the social worker is contributing to the maintenance of society, by exercising control over deviant members, whilst allocating resources according to policies laid down by the state, on an individual basis’. This consensus approach ‘analyses structural inequalities in society and the role of social work in relation to such inequ alities’ (Lishman, 2005: 70). Davies idea of maintenance of the individual, and, therefore society, is simplistic, and, by using the term ‘maintain’ rather than ‘change’, dominates a proper conception of social work’ (Sheppard, 2006). However the radical social worker would discount Davies notion of maintenance as they perceive the state as serving particular dominant interests and therefore cannot play a neutral, humanitarian role in respect to vulnerable, disadvantaged, socially excluded people. They would argue that social workers using the maintenance role, with respect to state policies, will perpetrate inequality and its associated oppressions, disadvantages and stigma. Radicalists distinguish that social workers need to understand the nature of state power, and the role of social work as an element of state control and oppression (Lishman, 2005). If this is the case, and the social worker is operational in the form of an agent of social control, whilst holding the power and control over the client, may actually be alienating them further from society. Additionally, as the radical perspective, alongside Marxism, focusses on the class differences in society, it fails to take into account the multiple and varying oppression and disadvantage which operate in British Contemporary Society. According to Langham and Lee (1989: 9) radical social work texts and practice led to the failure to ‘recognise the systematic denial of power to women and black people and failed to recognise inequality arising from sexuality, disability or age’. There is much debate and confusion in reference to the definition of social work, and even more deliberation concerning the role of the social worker and of its operational position in today’s society. Taking into account, views from the Marxist, Radical and Functionalist perspectives, it has been the focus of this essay to decide upon the position of social work at the interface of social exclusion and social inclusion. It is of the author’s opinion, that social work should perform a maintenance role, working with socially excluded individuals. The notion of being an agent of social control is not very appealing, as it makes the social worker an authority figure, which clients would find oppressive. It doesn’t matter if the client is deviant or a conformist, the social worker should remain non-judgemental and focus on enabling and maintaining them to gain independence and improve their lives. References Andersen, M. Taylor, H. (2008), Sociology, Understanding a Diverse Society, 4th edn. USA: Thomson Higher Education. Ashley, D. Orenstein, D. (1998), Sociological Theory, Classical Statements. 4th edn. USA: Allyn and Bacon. Cuff, E. Sharrock, W. Francis, D. (1992), Perspectives in Sociology, 4th edn. London: Routledge. Davies, M. (1994), the Essential Social Worker, 3rd edn. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. International Federation of Social Workers, 2000, Definition of Social Work, [Online] Available at (Accessed on 19/12/2011). Islam, A, (2005), ‘Sociology of Poverty: Quest for a New Horizon’, Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology. 2, pp. 1. Lisman, J. (2005), Handbook of theory for practice teachers in social work, 10th edn. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Miley, K. DuBois, B. (2004), Social work: an empowering profession, 5th edn. Boston: Pearson Publishers. Page, D. (2000), Communities in Balance, the reality of social exclusion on housing estates, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Parsons, T. (1934), ‘the Place of Ultimate Values in Sociological Theory’, International Journal of Ethics, 45(3), pp. 282-316. Parsons, T. (1951), the Social System, New York: Free Press. Ritzier, G, (1992), Sociological Theory, 3rd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rojek, C. Peacock, G. Collins, S. (1989) Social Work and Received Ideas, London: Routledge. Sheppard, M. (2006), Social Work and Social Exclusion, the Idea of Practice, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Silver, H. (1994-95), ‘Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity: Three Paradigms’, International Labour Review, (133), pp. 531-578. Turner, J. (2000), Handbook of Sociological Theory, USA: Spring er Press. Zimmerman, M. Perkins, D. (1995), ‘Empowerment Theory Research and Application’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(5), pp. 569– 579.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Academic Success Factors: Distance Education versus Traditional

Academic settings of distance education courses are distinct from traditional college settings due to its high-tech delivery and facilitating needs of its students. The success rates of each learning arena varies by tempering degrees; distance education students must rely on self-discipline and excellent time management skills while traditional students can use their classes for corresponding reasons. Developing skills for success in distance education and traditional learning environments are up to the students’ abilities to focus on their course work. In turn, the use of college text material, technology, and self-management is essential in varying degrees between each student. Distance and traditional students are required to read course textbooks because textbooks bridge the gap between the learner and the learning experience (Cavanaugh, 2005, p.1). Books remain the number one resource for all students because students must engage in in-depth discussions to sort through materials (Adventist Distance Education Consortium, 2002, p. 4). Implementing technology support such as visual or audio delivery increases distance education learners’ experience (Cavanaugh, 2005, p.1). At the same time, traditional students are experiencing a change in course delivery as well. For example, traditional universities offer online supplement materials for their students- quizzes, email, and video tutorials (ADEC, 2002, p.8). These additions require students to use self-motivation as their learning tools, but this is not the same as distance education learners. Distance learners are responsible for persistence and greater self-discipline because they are not required to physically walk or â€Å"go† to class (Cavanaugh, 2006, p.2). This allotted time is used for other demands such as work, family, or study time. Distance learners are in a state of freedom with boundaries that enable them to learn on their own. Traditional learners are placed in their learning environment that may trigger their motivation to learn, but distance learners must use their resources since their learning environment consists of technology (ADEC, 2002, p.8). Class participation rates are higher in distance education courses because the students have more time to develop well-rounded arguments for instructor’s assignments (Cavanaugh, 2005 p.3). On the other hand, traditional students are required to answer in-class questions at that moment – this triggers some self-consciousness among students (ADEC, 2002, p.8). Distance learners have an advantage over traditional students because of this, but they must seize the opportunity to gather information and articulate in with use of technology (Cavanaugh, 2005, p.3). Traditional students’ ability to physically present their work allows instructors to notice their student’s development over the course. Instructors of distance learners must gather hard data due to the non-facing circumstances. By this, student’s assessments and growth is found through their work (Cavanaugh, 2005, p.4). In conclusion, the success of distance and traditional learners is ultimately the student’s responsibility. Both learners must seize opportunities presented by their facilities to adapt their skills to the situation for greater understanding of their material (Cavanaugh, 2005, p.4).    This is very important that facilities have the appropriate resources available for both students. The distance learner and traditional learner utilize the information given to them; e.g. delivery methods are very important in offering the student adequate support in their academic endeavors (Cavanaugh, 2005, p.4). As stated before, distance education students must use optimal self-management skills for successful results while traditional students must focus attend courses physically for their success. Reference Cites Adventist Distance Education Consortium. (2002) Distance Education Success Guide. Retrieved September 16, 2006 Cavanaugh, C. (2005). Distance Education Success Factors (pp. 1-4). USA: University of North Florida.         

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Problem Set 6 and Car Buying Assignment Research Paper

Problem Set 6 and Car Buying Assignment - Research Paper Example f $8,143= ($1221.45+$750) =$1,971.45(deductible) Stop-loss feature policy=$3,000 =$3,000-$1,971.45=$1,028.55 Sarah’s friend was not right due to the fact that the stop loss policy was expensive (Ferenc, 2011). Solution to question 5 Coverage=80% out total expenses Deductible=$500 Medical expenses=$1,100 Amount paid by the insurance=? =$1100-$500=$600 80% of 600=$480 Problem Set 7 Solution to question 1 Total assets=$225,000,000 Total liabilities=$5,000,000 Total shares=$4,400,000 Net asset value= (total assets-total liabilities)/total number of shares Net asset value= ($225,000,000-$5,000,000)/4,400,000=$50 per share Solution to question 2 A Amount invested=$10,000 Interest rate =8.5% Mortgage=$90,000 Selling price=$120,000 Purchase price=$100,000 Gross profit= ($120,000-$100,000) =$20,000 B. Net profit/loss=gross profit-interest paid for the three years Interest paid for the three years= (8.5%x 90,000x3) =$22,950 Net profit or loss=$20,000-($7,650x3) =$20,000-$22,950= -$2,950 (loss) C. Rate of return= $(-2950/20,000) x 100% =14.75% Solution to question 3 Total assets=$108,000 Total liabilities=$16,800 Net worth=total assets –total liabilities Net worth= (108,000-16,800) =$91,200 Solution to question 4 Amount accumulated=$4,000,000 Period=45 years 3 children and 5 grandchildren A. According to objective 4 Barry and Mary can gift $13,000 each to anyone of their choice. Amount gifted to the three children= ($13000 x 2 x3) =$78,000 B. For grand children= ($13,000 x2 x5) =$130,000 C. Total amount of estate remove = ($130,000+$78,000) =$208,000 Solution to question 5 A Return on investment= ($240,000-$200,000)/200,000) x 100%= 20% B. Amount invested=$20,000 Amount borrowed=$180,000(interest free) Return on investment= ($240,000-$200,000) =$40,000 ($40,000/$20,000)100=200% Car Buying Assignment The new Mercedes M class that is ML350 sport utility is one of the recent models from Mercedes Benz in the market. The car is affordable and within the budget con straint hence creating an opportunity to individual the chance of ownership after considering a number of factors such as price, registration expenses ,taxes and the maintenance costs ( choice of this car majorly depends on the market price, for instance in this case, the car is priced at 65,000 dollars when all the costs have been incorporated. The amount of tax payable by the buyer is also fair because if one was to buy this car then they will pay tax at the rate of 8 percent up to 60 months, this result into a reasonable monthly payment of 838.48 dollars. In this case, it is very important to consider the element of tax before one buys a particular car so as to enable the preparation of an appropriate budget which enables one conform to the right budget without straining financially (Paul and Champion, 2005). In addition, the costs such as fixing costs and registration will vary depending on the model of the vehicle that one wants to purchase. Therefore, factors o f price, tax, registration costs and fixing costs should be given a priority especially before an individual

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Are there any political implications for David Cameron, in regards to Essay

Are there any political implications for David Cameron, in regards to the current welfare reform policy - Essay Example His contributions to the current welfare policies are evident in the linking of benefits to wages, which have helped to cut inflation. David Cameron might have influenced the welfare reform policy when he implemented the twenty thousand dollars a year cap to help in housing benefits. Suggestions made by Cameron concerning young people not being entitled to benefits until they pay their contributions, might have contributed to the current welfare reform policies. However, there were some individuals who were against the opinion (Blond, 2009). Some of the reasons as to why this research topic is worth studying are evident from some of the claims that were made by Cameron concerning the welfare reform policy. For example, one of the claims by Cameron is evident from his statements when he claimed that claimants were supposed to undertake work in return for the benefits they had obtained within six months of unemployment. In his attempt to implement the welfare policy, Cameron also argue d that individuals, who were on the sickness benefit, were supposed find ways of improving their health to cut on the government’s expenditure. However, such proposals lead to debates from the public. There are also suggestions that were made by Cameron regarding the welfare reform policy that are thought to have had political implications. ... When he suggested that housing benefits be removed for persons under the age of 25 years. He also suggested that the issue of regional benefits be examined to fit the cost of living. It is thought that some of these proposals that were made by Cameron might have been a representation of his political shift in the management of the coalition. This is because sources indicate that Cameron did acknowledge that some of the proposals he made could not be delivered in concert with the liberal democrats. Cameron also stated that some of the proposals that were made had to wait for a conservative majority of the government until the year 2015. Cameron might have had political implications because he stated that his intentions were to set out the country for the next election (Daguerre, 2005). Research suggests that Cameron might have had political implications, because of reactions that were obtained from other politicians like Danny Alexander. Who claimed that to ensure the welfare reform p olicy is implemented, focus should be placed on the introduction of universal credit. This research question is worth studying because it is evident that arguments have been arising concerning the implementation of the welfare reform policy. Cameron insists that other politicians should not use compassion to measure the size of the welfare cheque. Young people aged 25 years also think that Cameron was against their development when he advocated for a stop in their housing benefits. Other politicians also argued that implementing the welfare reform policy by cutting the tax credits was wrong (Davies, 2007). Academic research carried out on the topic reveals that there were political implications of the welfare reform policy. This is because some of the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Kinetics Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Kinetics - Lab Report Example 4. Take a timer from the upper right hand corner of the screen and place it on the workbench. Wait till you obtain a round number on the timer to begin timing the reaction. Be ready to begin timing the reaction when you add the ammonium persulfate to the solution in the 250 mL beaker. 3. Add 1 ml of starch indicator and 0.05 ml of 0.1 M EDTA solution from the Chemical Shelf to the same 250 ml beaker. This drop of EDTA solution is to minimize the effects of trace quantities of metal ion impurities that would cause spurious effects on the reaction. 4. Take a timer from the upper right hand corner of the screen and place it on the workbench. Wait till you obtain a round number on the timer to begin timing the reaction. Be ready to begin timing the reaction when you add the ammonium persulfate to the solution in the 250 mL beaker. 5. Prepare a 0.1 M solution of ammonium persulfate by diluting the 0.2 M solution. To do this take a 50 ml beaker from the Glassware Shelf and place it on the workbench. Add 12.5 ml of water and 12.5 ml of 0.2 M ammonium persulfulate. 3. Add 1 ml of starch indicator and 0.05 ml of 0.1 M EDTA solution from the Chemical Shelf to the same 250 ml beaker. This drop of EDTA solution is to minimize the effects of trace quantities of metal ion impurities that would cause spurious effects on the reaction. 4. Take a timer from the upper right hand corner of the screen and place it on the workbench. ... This drop of EDTA solution is to minimize the effects of trace quantities of metal ion impurities that would cause spurious effects on the reaction. 4. Take a timer from the upper right hand corner of the screen and place it on the workbench. Wait till you obtain a round number on the timer to begin timing the reaction. Be ready to begin timing the reaction when you add the ammonium persulfate to the solution in the 250 mL beaker. 5. Prepare a 0.1 M solution of ammonium persulfate by diluting the 0.2 M solution. To do this take a 50 ml beaker from the Glassware Shelf and place it on the workbench. Add 12.5 ml of water and 12.5 ml of 0.2 M ammonium persulfulate. 6. To begin the reaction, add the contents of the 50 ml beaker to the 250 ml beaker by dragging the 50 ml beaker on top of the 250 ml beaker and selecting all. 7. Record the time for the appearance of the black color. 16 ml of Ammonium persulphate Trial 3 1. Take a 250 ml beaker from the Glassware Shelf and place it on the workbench. 2. Add 25 ml of 2 M NaI solution from the Chemicals Shelf to the beaker. Dilute the NaI solution to 0.1 M by adding 25 ml of water. 3. Add 1 ml of starch indicator and 0.05 ml of 0.1 M EDTA solution from the Chemical Shelf to the same 250 ml beaker. This drop of EDTA solution is to minimize the effects of trace quantities of metal ion impurities that would cause spurious effects on the reaction. 4. Take a timer from the upper right hand corner of the screen and place it on the workbench. Wait till you obtain a round number on the timer to begin timing the reaction. Be ready to begin timing the reaction when you add the ammonium persulfate to the solution in the 250 mL beaker. 5. To begin the reaction, add 25.0 mL of the 0.2 M ammonium

Monday, August 26, 2019

Feminist Ethics (CAROL GILLIGAN) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Feminist Ethics (CAROL GILLIGAN) - Essay Example th strangely different views considering the diversity in socio-cultural factors acquired from the environment which correspondingly reflect through their mental attitude and social behavior. Apparently, ‘perceptual organization’ in this regard serves as a crucial tool in determining a person’s moral orientation. In matters concerning law and order, a rigid set of standards is set and employed to call for a mandatory obedience yet proper legal execution as we see it, still relies heavily upon weighing of perspectives or possibilities. Since the exact image of truth is not available for the sight of everyone due to limitations in the scope of our senses and intellectual reach, we bear the capacity of depending on someone else’s trusted paradigm. At times, other people see what we don’t or cannot see and equivalently, we possess the ability to know something which others struggle to gain knowledge of. This is one concrete evidence of reality by which we may agree with Gilligan at depth as she delivers the premise that â€Å"there are at least two perspectives possible in analyzing any moral problem, and that these perspectives, far from being mutually exclusive or oppositional, are in fact applied or adopted according to varying circumstances.† Hence, I suppose herein that psychological components as such play a significant role in court proceedings or even in plain settings that exhibit sharp argumentations between people who take ample pride in individual reasoning due to rich past experiences in life. This is especially true on areas they have been well engaged so it would often seem pointless to bring to discussion subjects that are perceived otherwise in their context. When exactly can one be justified as ethically right or having a better perception and approach of evaluating objects of interest? Gilligan accounts for the ‘search for clarity’ and the ‘search for justification’ in a perceptual task of examining things whose meanings come with

Sunday, August 25, 2019

School Budgeting Processes Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

School Budgeting Processes - Coursework Example For this reason, I would like to state that the District Superintendent of Schools and the School Management Boards should provide school principals with the following information about the budgeting process for their respective schools: Â  One of the most important lessons that each public school principal should have is the entire budgeting process. Therefore, the first thing that the District School Superintendent and boards of education should tell the school principals is about the type of budgeting strategy to be adopted in the school district. Having such information will definitely enable these school administrators to know the contributions which, as school administrators, they should be made towards a successful planning, drafting, and implementation of the school budget. Without a proper knowledge of this area, nothing much can be achieved so far. Â  However, given that the budgeting process is being devolved to the school levels, the District School Superintendent should adequately inform school principals about the on-site budgeting process. They should be told everything about this new approach and be challenged to take the initiatives to budget for their own schools. As school administrators, the principals should be informed that it is their responsibility to coordinate with the office of the school bursar in order to make the necessary budget approximations during each financial year. Once they get such important information, they will take the necessary steps to lobby their teams so as to initiate the budget-making exercise after thoroughly considering all the sources of school revenues and identifying the most necessary areas to spend on. Â  After informing the school principals that it is their mandate to oversee the success of on-site budgeting process in their respective schools, they should be challenged to be team players (Colander, 2007).

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Why Human Resource Is Dead Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Why Human Resource Is Dead - Article Example The idea of thinking of employees as capital assets is antiquated but for many, it’s not enough to simply talk about how HR is changing and what the new role of HR is. Companies are dropping the term â€Å"human resources† altogether and are shifting towards more â€Å"people-centric† terms. Titles such as chief people officer, VP of people operations, head of talent, chief talent officer, and others are becoming more commonplace and titles such as Chief Human Resource Officer are starting to fade away. This isn’t a new thing, some companies have had these titles and departments for several years already but now that the conversation around the future of work has taken center stage, I’ve seen this transition accelerate dramatically. It might sound superficial, after all, simply calling the same function something else doesn’t mean anything will change. Consider Cisco’s recent change of their Chief Human Resources Officer Francine Katso udas to Chief People Officer. Many other examples of this change exist at companies all over the world, here are a few: Laszlo Bock is SVP of People Operations at Google, Susan Chambers is EVP of the Global People Division at Walmart, Pat Wadors is the SVP of the Global Talent Organization at Linkedin, Anne Byerlein is the Chief People Officer at Yum! Brands and the list go on and on. I don’t view renaming the department as any kind of solution but I do see it as the first stepping stone for an organization to commit to making the change.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Renewable Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Renewable Technology - Essay Example Climate change and global warming are two major threats to the ecological balance. Over the past 10 years, there is a continuous increase in the global climate that is melting the polar sea ice in the arctic regions where the population of the polar bear is endangered (Dincer, 2007). As a result, scientists have cautioned policy makers on the continued use of fossil fuel that increases the concentration of carbon dioxide gas. This is the main reason why policies are being set to encourage utilization of renewable materials. In the energy sector, people are encouraged to utilize the renewable sources of energy such as solar, biogas, hydropower and wind power. The generation of power using these processes has little influence on the environment leading to the production of environmentally friendly energy sources (Dincer, 2007). This paper will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of integrating various renewable energy sources into national electrical grid systems. In addition, this report will focus on environmental impact, costs involved, and load balancing (Anon, 2004). This will consider Solar, Wind, Hydro, and Biomass Electricity (including waste incineration) and any others of your choice. In order to achieve this objective, the analysis will examine evidence from literature existing on renewable energy. It will evaluate various sources of information such as websites, existing theories, case studies and empirical studies carried out on the topic. This approach will provide the vital data and information in regard to renewable energy. The benefits realized through the utilization of renewable energy are overwhelmingly high, especially on environmental protection. Currently, the renewable energy is being used in the generation of electricity that is later fed to the national grid. This is satisfying the high demand for electricity in the world

Outline the differences between a leader and a manager. With one Essay

Outline the differences between a leader and a manager. With one specific company or industry in mind, discuss how these differe - Essay Example Closely related to this is the work of the manager that includes management is an art and is defined as a process used in the achievement of the goals of the organization or its objectives. Leaders and managers play related roles and are an integral part of any organization or entity. Therefore, workers or employees in a particular organization need managers to assign tasks as well as define the purpose of the organization. This requires that the managers organize the workers in order to maximize the efficiency of the work place or organization while at the same time nurture skills, inspire results and actively develop talents.i The question that then begs to be answered is whether a difference between leaders and managers and what are the benefits of having good or better ones in an organization. As already discussed above, the managers set the direction in which a company should be run through aligning the human resource available, motivating and inspiring them in whatever they do. Managers on the other hand have the management task assigned to them and are required to achieve the goals of the organization that may include planning and making of budgets, organizing and staffing, solving problems and other control duties. Several researchers agree that managers play an important role in budgeting, controlling and organizing how an organization is run, while the leaders offer vision for the organization while at the same time organize how different aspects of the organization can be changed. A research paper commissioned by the Financial World in 2007 titled â€Å"Manager to Leader: making the transition† distinguish these two confusing terms by discussing the distinction between good leadership and good management.ii Therefore, the main differences between leadership and management are the well-pronounced ability of leaders to communicate effectively to achieve success. In the current business environment, leaders play an important role in dealing with change while the managers ensure that things run smoothly. The differences between leaders and managers can be discussed under different subheadings that clearly distinguish a person as engaged in either management or leadership. In terms of the development of a vision, the manager plans and budgets while at the same time develops process steps and sets the timelines. A manager should exhibit an impersonal attitude that will help it achieve its aims and visions; moreover, the leader sets the directions and develops the vision for running of the organization while at the same time employing strategic plans for achieving the vision and aims of the organization or entity. The leader must always be passionate about the goals and visions of the organization in which they lead.iii In the development of human resource and networking, the manager is involved in organization and staffing. He at the same time maintains structures through the delegation of responsibility and responsibilities. Managers are actively involved in the implementation of the vision through the establishment of policy and procedures important for implementing the vision. Leaders play an important role in aligning the organization through proper communication of the vision, mission and direction. A leader is required to display high driven emotion that can positively stimulate the creation of partnerships that understand and appreciate the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The many hardships of society Essay Example for Free

The many hardships of society Essay Victor does not show love and domestic affection to the creature after he has given it life he just abandons it without some one to look after it and care for it as Victors family has done. Unable to endure the aspect of the being I had created I rushed out of the room and continued along time traversing my bedchamber. Victor does not show any love for the creature he has created. He is unable to endure this gives the reader the image that the creature has become so ugly. Even though he has collected the body parts from beautiful people the creature is still hideous. This shows a complete lack of love and domestic affection that has been shown to Victor in abundance by his parents. Victors parents show that there is a strong family bond between them and their son. I was there playing their idol, and something better than their child, the innocent and helpless creature bestowed on them by heaven. In this paragraph Victor describes himself as their plaything their idol. Him and his parents are inseparable and they looked up to Victor although he is a small child. They wanted him to be safe and happy. Victor is also described as small and innocent helpless creature. Victor does not show the same affection for the creature. I beheld the wretch- the miserable monster whom I created. Victor describes the creature as a wretch, this shows that Victor as a young child was shown love and affection but he is now incapable of showing the same love that was shown to him by his parent to the creature the baby that he has created. These adjectives describe the monster as physically ugly this is one of the reasons why victor rejects him, because he wanted to make a beautiful creature. Victor is also described as helpless and innocent and that he cannot fend for himself and he needs an older figure to be responsible for his actions and to keep him safe. Victor abandons the creature as soon as he realizes that he has made a mistake in trying to play god. But what has he abandoned he has abandoned a young inexperience, defenseless, innocent helpless creature. So again we see Victor being shown great love and domestic affection by his family. But when he grows up he is unable to show the same love and domestic affection towards the creature. Victor is brought up in a protective bubble when he is younger. I was so guided by a silken cord that all seemed but one train of enjoyment for me. Using the word silken cord refers to the umbilical cord that gives the entire growing child what it needs to survive. This is directly linked to Victor parents and the fact that they are providing him with so much love and domestic affection that he does not have to do anything he does not have to fend for himself. This Silken cord of tender love and affection is not there when the creature is brought to life. He has to learn to find his own way because he is an outcast of society so he would find it hard to fit in. He is on his own because victor has not got the mental strength to own up and shows this creation to the rest of the world. He also does not want to show any affection or love to this creature because he finds it physically repulsive. Victor is shown the way by his Parents they are always making decisions for him even as a young adult. When I was seventeen my parents resolved that I should become a student at he university of Inglostadt. He still has a protective bubble around him even though he is seventeen. This shows that his parents are still making choices for him that can provide him happiness or sorrow in the years to come. The creature is deprived of this from victor this is shown, as he does not know about the dangers of fire. The creature is attracted to the warmth of the fire and it is like the tender warm love that he is not receiving. I thrust my hand into the live embers but draw it quickly out again crying in pain. The creature has had no guidance from victor or anybody of higher intelligence than himself. This is why he burns his hand on the fire. If victor was about to do that either his Mother or Father would have stopped him from burning himself because they want to protecting him so he does not get harmed mentally or Physically. The creature then goes off in search of another family or someone who can nurture him properly. He finds a village he is curious to see this type pf village with cottages, which he has never seen before. Shortly after entering the village he is confronted by a mob throwing stones and various items at him. The creature is amazed at how polite and loving the people he is observing are. There gentle manners and beauty of these cottagers greatly endured me. He means that he is amazed that even though they are so poor they are still happy and show great love and affection for each other and he wants to become apart of that family. He observes the family and notices a new addition to the family called safie she is from a distant country. This gives the creature hope that maybe he may be able to be accepted into the family as safie is an outsider and she has been accepted. The creature then finds out how ugly he is and starts to doubt his reasons for being in the world. I had admired the perfect form of my cottagers- their grace, beauty, and delicate complexions; but how was I terrified when I viewed myself in a transparent pool! At first I stared back, unable to believe that indeed I who was reflected in the mirror; and when I became fully convinced that I was in reality the monster that I am. He realizes that he is a monster and that he would never fit in if he wanted to have a family that loved him and nurtured him. He starts to realize that this is the end for his hopes of a normal life. The creature tries to be accepted into the family by speaking to the blind man, the blind man is oblivious to any faults the creature may have. Agatha fainted, and safie unable to attend his friend rushed out of the cottage. Felix darted forward and with a supernatural force tore me from his father, to whose knees I clung; in a transport of fury, he dashed me to the ground with a stick . I could have torn him limb form limb, as a lion rends the antelope. He now realizes that all hope is lost of ever finding a family that will love him and show him domestic affection and so wallows in self pity. He then burns down the delaceys house at it is a symbol of a nice warm family that he is not apart of so he destroys it. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Mary Shelley section.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

About A Boy Summary English Literature Essay

About A Boy Summary English Literature Essay Will, 36 years old, is a single and fashionable guy. He doesnt work, because he had received money from his dads inheritance. His dad has made a very popular Christmas-song, thats why Will doesnt work. He doesnt live like a 36-year old guy, because he hasnt got any responsibilities. In the begin of the story Marcus and Will doesnt know each other. Marcus just moved to London, because his mother always got a different husband. Will meets Angie, which has a son. He falls in love with her and he tells her things that he has a son, called Ned, which he hasnt got. Will liked it when woman being attached to him. Then Angie broke up with Will. Will missed the feeling to be in love with a women, so he decided to go to SPAT. SPAT is a association for single parents. Will said he had a little son called Ned. There he met a girl called Suzie, who has a daughter called Paula. One day, theres a SPAT picnic. But how does Will go to that picnic without Ned? Will starts lying about Ned again, so he gets away with it. Fiona, Marcus mum, starts crying very often without a reason. Marcus is on a new school, where he gets being bullied a lot. One day, Fiona and Marcus go to the picnic from SPAT, because Suzie, also a friend of Fiona, asked them to come. Now, Will and Marcus will meet each other for the first time at the picnic. Marcus thinks its very boring, and decides to throw bread to ducks. But then, he kills a duck. The owner of the park starts getting angry, but Will helps Marcus. Marcus is very grateful for that. Will thinks Marcus is a very adult boy. Will brings Marcus and Suzie at home. But then, when they go inside Marcus house, they see Fiona half-dead on the couch. They go very quickly to the hospital. When Fionas in the hospital, Marcus finds a farewell letter from his mum. Then Marcus starts thinking that he hasnt got anyone besides his mother. So he decides to search people who want to be their friend, so then he isnt alone when his mother will pass out. Fiona gets back home, and she, Marcus and Will are going to diner together. Marcus wants that Fiona and Will start dating with each other, so he wont be alone anymore. This will be a very uncomfortable diner, because everybody still believes Will has a child (he bought a child seat, especially for the fact that he really has a son). Some days later, Marcus goes to Will, and concludes Ned doesnt exist. At Wills house, Marcus learns a lot of things. As example what the newest and coolest CDs are, and Will buys him some cool shoes. But the next day, the shoes are stolen. Marcus has to go to the direction, and there he meets a very notorious girl (Ellie). Marcus and Ellie start being friends, which Marcus likes a lot. Marcus daily comes at Wills place, but when Fiona hears that Will hasnt got a son, Marcus isnt allowed to go to Will anymore. But despite that, Marcus invites Will for a Christmas party, where Will meets Suzie. Will doesnt feel himself very comfortable, and Suzie isnt happy at all because Will lied to her. On New Years Eve, Will falls in love with Rachel. Rachel is a beautiful women, who has a son, named Ali. Very soon Will and Rachel talk about children. Will says to Rachel that Marcus is his son. So he asks Marcus to pretend if hes Wills son. They go to Rachel, which becomes a nightmare for Marcus. Ali threatens Marcus with the thing that Will and Rachel dont interact anymore. After that accident, it goes a lot better with Marcus and Will. It seems to be Rachel and Fiona like each other. A couple of days later, Marcus, Rachel and Fiona decide to go to a pub, but Rachel doesnt come. Marcus goes with Ellie to Cambridge, where Marcus dad lives. Marcus dad (Clive) has broken his collar bone with a stupid accident, so Clive wanted to see Marcus. En route, Ellie damages a window glass, because she was angry of the fact that Kurt Cobain (a famous singer which Eillie is a big fan from) committed suicide. So they have to go to the police station, where they will be picked up by Clive and his girlfriend (Lindsey). But they also are getting picked up by Fiona, Will and Ellies mum. Marcus starts getting a quarrel with Lindsey and Clive. But finally, everything will be resolved. Marcus goes to his dad, and Ellie will be guilty from the window-damage. Marcus becomes a real teenager now, Will tells Rachel he hasnt got a son and Fiona will be OK. Creative Assignment 15. Write a mini-biography of an author whose work you read. Nicolas Peter John Hornby (Nick Hornby) was born at April 17th 1957, in the city Redhill in the United Kingdom. Nick Hornbys parents, called Derek Peter Hornby and Margaret Audrey Withers. Nick Hornbys dad was a businessman with a lot of success and Nick Hornbys mother was a secretary. His parents divorced when he was only eleven. So Nick Hornby lived in a single-parent family with his mum and his sister Gill Hornby, because his dad left Great-Britain and started a new live in France. Nick Hornby married With Vriginia Hornby in 1993, and they divorced in 1998. In 1993 Nick Hornbys son (Danny Hornby)was born. Nowadays Nick Hornby works and lives in Highbury in London. After he left the Maidenhead Grammar School, he started studying English at the Jesus college in Cambridge. After his study at the Jesus college, he started teaching English to students from other countries. After his career as a teacher, Nick Hornby started doing some journalism for the famous magazine, called New Musical Express. But that wasnt the thing he really liked, so he decided to become a writer. The head points of his books are often music and sports, where obvious behavior of men will be described. Nick Hornby is also an enormous Arsenal-fan, which you can find back in his books. He also uses actual things in his stories, like the death of Kurt Cobain in the book About a boy. The literary movements where Nick Hornbys books belongs to, are humor, roman and realistic stories. Very many people love his books, because they appeals the people. Nick Hornbys first book was Fever Pitch, published in 1992, where he described his feelings for the football-club Arsenal. With this book he launched a new literary: football-stories. Just like About a boy(1998) and High Fidelity(1995), Fever Pitch is based on his own life experiences. Other books that Nick Hornby had written are: How to be good (written in 2001, with this book Hornby won the WH Smith Award for Fiction), this is a story about someone who wants to be good for the whole world. 31 Songs (written in 2003), is a book about 26 popsongs which Nick Hornby liked. A long way down (written in 2005, this book was shortlisted for the Whitbread Novel Award), this is a book about suicide, fear, etc. The Complete Polysyllabic Spree  (written in 2006), Nick Hornby explores in this book the how and when and why and what of reading. Slam (written in 2007), this book is about skateboarders and their problems. Juliet, Naked (written in 2009), this book is about a nerds idol who falls in love with the nerds girlfriend The books which are filmed, are: Fever pitch (filmed twice: in the years 1997 and 2005) High Fidelty (filmed in the year 2000) About a boy (filmed in the year 2002) Nick Hornby has also written 3 anthologies, called: My favourite Year (written in 1993) The Picador Book of Sportswriting  (written in 1996) Speaking with the Angel  (written in 2000) It is visible that Nick Hornby is a very popular writer, because he published a lot of books, and from a couple of these books there has been made a movie. Nick Hornbys biggest success is High Fidelty, because he won most of his trophies with this book. Many books of Nick Hornby are translated into Dutch and other languages, because he is also well-known in very many countries. But Nick Hornbys work hasnt been finished yet, because there is going to be a new film, called An Education.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Protestant Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism

Protestant Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism Karl Heinrich Marx (Karl Marx), a philosopher, historian, sociologist, political theorist and journalist who developed the theory of Marxism. His sociological ideas have played a significant role in the understanding and development of social sciences and Marxist political movements. Marxist theories about society, politics, economy and culture signify that the culture gets progressed through dialectic of class efforts. On the other hand, Karl Emil Maximilian Max Weber (Max Weber) was another economist and sociologist of Germany who got profoundly influenced by the sociology along with its theory and research findings. He became famous for the notion in economic sociology that was completely elaborated in his book on The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. This essay provides an insight about the concept of progress together with its comparison, by considering the opinions and views of the two sociologists depicted above. Specifically, the present essay concentrates on the cultural theorists who are interested in the process of social development as a whole and understands the concept of progress relative to this context. In the reconsideration of this concept of progress, Karl Marx (1818-1883) grew highly influential as he started attacking the dominant philosophic and idealistic traditions pertaining to German Science and Philosophy with his inspection of the economies related to France, Germany and England as well as the emergence class associated to these countries. According to Marx, a man creates and reflects himself by the labour processes and develops awareness not only about himself but also his social characteristic features in relation to other individuals in the society. Nevertheless, a mans association to his labour and to himself, nature and other people was been highly disturbed through the establishment of Division of Labour as highly and well-organised means of production that subsequently resulted in mans estrangement from his own labour. This context of alienation was intensified further with the considerable development of capitalist mode of production where in which worker was fur ther divided from his dynamic labour through industrialists ownership in means of production. Thus, Marx asserts that individuals progress towards self realisation has been stymied by the development of capitalism-a structure of economic associations that utilize working mans labour in the name of proceeds (profits) and isolates man from other individuals and himself in a way through the conflict between the proleterian and bourgeois classes. But, in Marxs historical explanation, the bourgeois class development and the specific capitalistic mode of production is an obligatory step towards the category of society where the individual may once again obtain the origin for his perspective of self-realisation: communism. These enhancements of production forces, a construction of mans ability, find its restrictions in the association of power and contraindication of dominance. Thus, he meets the necessary criterion with the explanatory belief of self-realisation by his investing analysis of conflicts entrenched within social and economic construction of capitalism. In addition, Marx expands the idea of false-consciousness by recognising the class that is unable to direct their true interests associated to well-being, self realisation and exploitation. By developing consciousness among the proletarians class, the utilisation of human reason in understanding the characteristic nature and cause of exploitation as private possession of the ways of fabrication in capitalist society. Nevertheless, it can be understood that it is the subjugated use of reason, allied with Marxs philosophy of material practice that can result in the development of freedom to humans and thus assist them in achieving progress. Lastly, the use and application of human reasoning as critiques with the faith in religious salvation, can be considered as human means for transforming their materialistic social situations and commence the re-arrival of enlightenment promise of freedom, which in Marxs perspective was been impeded and succeeded by the estrangement and exploitation conditions that manifest within the capitalistic society. Contrastingly, Max Weber (1864-1920) considered seriously about the emerging dilemmas from the socio cultural and political state of affairs in Germany and criticised purely the historical materialistic concept of explanations. Within his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber instead depicts a more conceivable and pragmatic explanation that the materialization of capitalism owed much to the specific patterns of religious motivational explanations in Calvinism between various industrialists at that period. As these people (Calvinists) believed that gods knowledge and astuteness was immeasurable to human minds, deliverance and resistance cannot be anticipate confidently as a reward for ones inherent merits. In this uncertainty, the preachers of Calvinism can only offer their valuable suggestions in a way that expertise in ones worldly calling can be assumed to be as a spot of celestial errand. This consequential methodology of hard work, methodological planning and reinvesting profits then led to success within business and economic growth. In Webers edifying history writings, the principal theme is the rationalisation, the long-standing trend in Western societies towards considering every segment of social activity more acquiescent to calculation. He asserts that, in increasing yearn for achieving mastery over meeting human needs (by maximisation of efficiency, predictability and control) an individual drives the rationalisation process. Unlike Marx, Weber direct that rationalisation cannot advance identically and concomitantly in every sphere and instead each individual sphere is rationalised in its own specific direction that is unique and different. In the spiritual sphere, the process of rationalisation advances with the deflation and the exclusion of magic through logical expansion and the realistic descriptions of Protestantism, especially the abstinent material performances. Different to Marx, Weber describes that rationalisation i n economic sphere discovers itself in the modern bourgeois capitalism (Marx view of capitalistic progress) and the critical utilisation of reasoning in the computation of quest of yields. Additionally, Weber explains that the progress in administrative sphere can be directed only through a guided reckoning, impartiality and competence. In the intellectual sphere, progress was thought to be achieved by the aid of scientific methods, testing skills, experiential data collection because theories that are imitative through scientific reasoning supersede to those that are previously attributed to magical causes. However, this particular enlightenment ideology of motive and self realisation is distinguishable with that of Marxs view of progress and is still qualified by Weber by the rationalisation itself. Compared to Marx perspective, the rationalisation and progress according to Weber involve the positive features of effectiveness, manageability, uniformity, unavoidability and impartiality. These positive aspects of rationalisation can result in enhanced capacity, the development of capacity and power relations and thereby assists in attaining progress in each sphere depicted above. Unlike Marx, rationalisation in economic perspective as witnessed in Western Capitalism was been considered by Weber as the process of reasoning out unreasonable sentiments that hamper accrual and estimation of profit, progress and sentiments like faith, thoughtfulness solidarity and apprehension. Similarly, the rationalisation in administrative view by bureaucracy has led to dehumanisation of relationships amid of personnel surrounded by objective regulations of conduct that enhance competence, reduce prejudice and produce reliable, expected results. Moreover, the phenomenon of rationalisation in politic al perception develops a conflict with the human involvement in the form of democracy and comprises people supremacy with the influence of outside and external forces. Thus, it can be understood that Weber paints an austere picture of dehumanised relationships, where in which love, compassion and human relations are weeded out in rationalised links that promote regularity, impartiality and efficiency. Distinct to Marx, with this, Weber provides a critical analysis to the Enlightenment appeal, not only indicating the positive facets of rationalisation but also its negative implications. To conclude this interpretation of progress among the two cultural theorists, the approach of modernity, radical discontinuity and the possibility of complete self realisation were figured within the work of each theorist. Simply, it can be explained as for Marx, the progress lies in the advancement of society including economic production methods that dialectically result to its radical oust and a societal reconstruction, a revolutionary shatter from the pre-existing forms of history. Towards the other side, the split is in conventional forms of movement and organisation through rationalisation for Weber. Rather, human maturity and its development in Marxs view dictated radical variance and structural modifications, Whilst Weber view embodied an emerging tension between ideals of competence and distant relations versus unreasonable principles of human love, consideration and faith. Thus, this process of progress and rationalisation still persists for critical discussion in future as all the social practices and principles strive to conceal their embarrassment with power just in their way of changing domination.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Thomas Hardys Views on Marriage Essay -- Biography Biographies Essays

Thomas Hardy's Views on Marriage Thomas Hardy lived in a time when marriage was the expected practice for young men and women. He had a very distinct view of the institution and the implications that came along with it. He himself was married twice in his long life, both times not very happily, and had progressive views about the union of the sexes, most particularly regarding divorce. His ideas and opinions are not too carefully concealed in his literary works, though he contested that he kept his own views out of his fiction. In order to understand Hardy and his views on marriage, we must first understand the time in which he lived. The Victorian society held rigid views on marriage and the role of women in life. Most women regarded marriage as a fixed fact of nature. It was a fundamental part of their life plan, as was childbearing. In the mid-19th century, reproduction was considered a woman's only correct occupation. On average, women of all classes married between the ages of 23 and 26, men between 25 and 30. Marriage and divorce legislation regulated the relations between men and women. During the 19th century there were great changes made to matrimonial law; however, marriage laws still continued to grant more rights to men than to women. Under the common-law doctrine of couverture, when a woman married she lost her independent legal personality as a femme sole (single woman) and became a femme couvert (covered woman). Men could divorce their wives solely on the grounds of adultery, but women were forced to show proof of cruelty, bigamy, incest, or bestiality along with infidelity. Husbands could beat to death their wives and get only a minimal prison sentence, but wives were considered reprehensible for kill... ... should rule marriage. If two people have similar interests and work well together, they should be united by marriage in order to enjoy the physical pleasures of a relationship in a socially acceptable way. However, if two people should grow apart and be utterly miserable with one another, Hardy believes that the practical course is separation and divorce. Bibliography Christ, Carol T., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Victorian Age. V. 2b, 7th ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000. Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography. New York: Random House, 1982. Mitchell, Sally, ed. Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1988. Page, Norman, ed. Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Perkin, Joan. Victorian Women. New York: New York University Press, 1993.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Averys Article on Global Warming :: Environmental Global Climate Change

As a reader the first thing I noticed about this piece is that it is an extract from The Guardian newspaper. This shows that this article is meant for intelligent and a more intellectual readership. Avery is trying to convince the reader that Global Warming is a good thing which we can benefit from. He is portraying his point of view by using his own assertions. He refers to the increase in global temperature in the next century as predicted by scientists. This method is used effectively by the author to help convince the reader to support his opinion. Avery uses a method which almost predicts the future, when in fact it is an educated guess to help support his opinion. An example of this is, "We can expect a peak population of approximately 8.5 billion in the year 2035." This is used effectively to stop the author from making a rash comment which may be proven wrong. This also shows that the author has conducted some research. He also rebuttals other scientific views. An example of this is, "That may sound like a lot, but it isn't." He uses this method lucratively. Avery says, " none of them expects to see the planet much warmer in the foreseeable future". This is a very widespread comment which is inaccurate, because Avery would have had to ask every scientist and each one will have had to have agreed. Avery also uses the history of the subject matter to help prove his point. Here is an example of this, "Between 900AD and 1300 the earth warmed by some 4-7 degrees." This is very effective as it shows the author has conducted some research and used it successfully. Avery uses many facts in his piece for example, " The world dropped into The Little Ice Age." This also shows that the author has used research to help his argument. Avery uses a clear structure in his piece. I noticed that the title, " Welcome To the garden of Eden" portrays a perfect paradise which can be interpreted as a

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Time Value of Money and Present Value

Date: 14/11/2012 52. Annuities: You are saving for the college education of your two children. They are two years apart in age; one will begin college 15 years from today and the other will begin 17 years from today. You estimate your children’s college expenses to be $23,000 per year per child, payable at the beginning of each school year. The annual interest rate is 5. 5 percent. How much money must you deposit in account each year to fund your children’s education? Your deposits begin one year from today. You will make your last deposit when your oldest child enters college. Assume four years of collegeSolution: Cost of 1 year at university = 23,000 N=4 I=5. 5% PMT=23,000 CPT PV = 80,618. 45 For the first child the PV = 80,618. 45/ (1. 055) ^14 = $38,097. 81 For the second child the PV = 80,618. 45/ (1. 055) ^16 = $34,229. 07 Therefore the total cost today of your children’s college expense will be the addition of the 2 = $72,326. 88 This is the present value of my annual savings, which are an annuity, so to get the amount I am supposed to save each year would be: PV=72,326. 88 N=15 I=5. 5 CPT PMT = 7,205. 6 57. Calculating Annuity Values: Bilbo Baggins wants to save money to meet three objectives.First, he would like to be able to retire 30 years from now with retirement income of $25,000 per month for 20 years, with the first payment received 30 years and 1 month from now. Second, he would like to purchase a cabin in Rivendell in 10 years at an estimated cost of $350,000. Third, after he passes on at the end of the 20 years of withdrawals, he would like to leave an inheritance of $750,000 to his nephew Frodo. He can afford to save $2,100 per month for the next 10 years. If he can earn an 11 percent EAR before he retires and an 8 percent EAR after he retires, how much will he have to save each month in years 11 through 30? Solution:First we get the FV of the 2,100 savings over 10 years Bilbo Baggins can afford to save $2,100 dollars per month for the next 10 years therefore at 10 years he would have saved: PMT = 2,100 I = 10. 48 / 12 = 0. 873 N = 10 x 12 = 120 CPT FV = $442,201. 15 So after 10 years he would be able to purchase his yacht at the price of $350,000, and he would be left with a balance of $92,201. 15 This $92,201. 15 will be our current PV at year 10. At year 30, the year when Bilbo retires, the $92,201. 15 would become 92,201. 15*(1. 11) ^20 = $620,283. 23 Second we have to find out how much the inheritance of 750,000 would be at year 30: 750,000/1. 8^20= $160,911. 16 Third In order for him to be able to withdraw a sum of 25,000 per month for the next 20 years after his retirement, we should now calculate this annuity’s present value: N= 20 x 12 = 240 I= 7. 72 / 12 = 0. 643 PMT= 25,000 CPT PV = $3,052,135. 26 Adding up the PV’s of the $750,000 and the annuity, we will get $3,213,046. 32 We will subtract the future value at year 30 of the $92,201. 15 ($620,283. 23) which we saved at year 10 from $3,213,046. 32 to get $2,592,763. 09 We are now left with an annuity that pays $2,592,763. 09 at year 30, and a time period of 20 years (yr11-30) To calculate the yearly PMT, we haveFV= $2,592,763. 09 I= 10. 48 / 12 = 0. 873 N= 20 x 12 = 240 CPT PMT = 3,207. 33 Therefore the monthly PMT Bilbo would have to save each month through years 11-30 would be = $3,207. 33 34. Valuing bonds: Mallory Corporation has two different bonds, currently outstanding. Bond M has a face value of $20,000 and matures in twenty years. The bond makes no payments for the first six years, then pays $1,200 every 6 months over the subsequent eight years, and finally pays $1,500 every 6 months over the last years. Bond N also has a face value of $20,000 and a maturity of 20 years; it makes n coupon payments over the life of the bond.If the required return on both these bonds is 10% compounded semiannually, what is the current price of bond M? Of bond N? Solution: The price of a bond is equal to PV of ex pected future cash flows Bond M: Face value 20,000 Present value of 20,000 = 20,000/ (1. 05) ^40 = $2,840. 91 First we need to get the present value of the annuity for the 1,500 semiannual PMTs at year 14 Present Value of Annuity = $13,295 $13,295 becomes $3,391 at year 0 We then get the annuity of the 1,200 semiannual PMTs at year 6, and then at Present Value $13,005 at year 6 with a PV of $7,242 at year 0 The sum of the 3 PV’s gives us the value of the bond ,841 + 3,391 + 7,242 = $13,474 Bond N Face value 20,000 Present value of 20,000 = 20,000/ (1. 05) ^40 = $2,840. 91 38. Non-constant growth: Storico Co. just paid a dividend of aud 3. 5 per share. The company will increase its dividend by 20% next year, and will then reduce its dividend growth rate by 5% per year, until it reaches the industry average of 5% industry average growth, after which the company will keep a constant growth rate forever. If the required return on Storico stock is 13%, what will a share of stock s ell for today? Solution  : D0 = $3. 5 D1= 3. 5*1. 2= $4. 2 D2= 4. 2*1. 15= $4. 3 D3=4. 83*1. 1= $5. 31 D4=5. 31*1. 05= $5. 58 Since the first 4 periods are different we get the PV of each one alone, then as of the 4th year we get the perpetuity of the rest, and sum them up to get the final NPV We now get the PV of each Dividend PV D1 = 4. 2/ (1. 13) = $3. 72 PV D2 = 4. 83/ (1. 13) ^2 = $3. 78 PV D3 = 5. 31/ (1. 13) ^3 = $3. 68 So the PVs of D1+D2+D3 = $11. 18 NPV of perpetuity at constant growth = 5. 58(0. 08) / (1. 13) ^3 = 69. 75 / (1. 13) ^3 = $48. 34 NPV perpetuity + NPV dividends = NPV price of stock today 48. 34 + 11. 18 = $59. 52

Marketing 311 Study Guide Midterm 1

1. Managing customers as assets? – * Building the right relationships with the right customers involves treating customers as assets that need to be managed and maximized * Different types of customers require different relationship management strategies * Customer relationship management is the overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior value and satisfaction * 2. Marketing Mix (4 P’s) * Product, price, place and promotion—the controllable set of activities that a firm uses to respond to the wants of its target markets * Product- goods, services and ideas Price-everything the buyer gives up (time, energy, money) in exchange for the product * Place- all the activities necessary to get the product to the right customer when that customer wants it. * Supply chain management- the set of approaches and techniques that firms employ to efficiently and effectively integrate their suppliers, manufacturers, warehou ses, stores, and other firms involved in the transaction, such as transportation companies into a seamless value chain. This allows merchandise to be produced and distributed in the right quantities, to the right place, and at the right time. * Promotion- Communicating the value of a product to its customers. * 3. Consumer decision making process- * Need Recognition- consumers recognize that they have an unsatisfied need and want to go from their needy state to a desired state. The bigger this gap is=the greater the need recognition. * Functional needs- pertains to the performance of a product or service. Psychological needs- pertain to the personal gratification consumers associate with a product or service. **shoes are needed to keep feet clean. $500 shoes satisfy a psychological need. * THE KEY TO SUCCESSFUL MARKETING: establishing a balance between these two needs that best appeals to that firm’s target market * Search For Information- second step is to search for info about various options that will satisfy the need. The length of time spent on this will relate to how much risk is involved should you hoose the wrong option. * Internal search for information- the buyer examines his own memory and knowledge about the option. * External search for information- buyer seeks information from outside himself to make a decision. Talking with friends, family, sales people, research online†¦ * Factors the affect consumer’s’ search process * Perceived Benefits vs. Perceived Costs – is it worth the time and effort? If there is high risk (buying a house) people will spend more time researching. The Locus of Control – people with internal locus control believe they have control over the outcomes of their actions. These people do more researching. People with external locus of control believe that fate and external factors control outcomes. It doesn’t matter to them how long they spend searching. * Actual or Perceived Risk- Performance, Financial and psychological risks influence how long and how much research will be done. * Performance Risk - risk of getting a bad (poorly performing) product. Financial Risk- risk with money outlay. Warranties reduce that risk * Psychological risks- how people feel if a product does not convey the right image * Type of Product or Service- specialty, shopping, and convenience products * Specialty goods and services- people have a strong preference and will expend time looking for the best supplier (prius vs other hybrid†¦) * Shopping goods and services- going from store to store looking for a product (perfume, shoes†¦. * Convenience goods and services- things that do not require research and are often purchases without very much thought (bread, soap†¦) * Evaluation of Alternatives- sifting through the available choices they have gathered info on and evaluating the option available to them. Universal sets- all possible choices available to them for that product * Retrieval sets- brands or stores that can be easily remembered and always come to mind * Evoked set- alternative brands and stores that a customer states they would consider when making a choice(companies want to be here to increase likelihood of purchase and reduce searching in other areas). This is the group that the choice has been narrowed down to by specific criteria. * Evaluative criteria- a set of important attributes about a particular product. ( looking for a tv†¦picture quality, rightness, reputation, technical support†¦) * Determinant attributes- product or service features that are important to the buyer and where competing brands may differ. * Consumer decision rules- the set of rules and criteria that consumers use consciously or subconsciously to quickly and efficiently select from alternatives. * Compensatory- assumes that the consumer trades off one characteristic for another. * Non compensatory- when consumers choose a product or service on the basis of a characteristic regardless of the value of its other characteristics. Decision heuristics- mental shortcuts that help a consumer narrow down choices. Price, brand, product presentation * Purchase and Consumption- buying a product and â€Å"putting it to the test† * Ritual consumption- pattern of behaviors tied to life events that affect what and how we consume. Symbolic meaning and vary my importance and culture. * Post Purchase- marketers are interested in this because it involves actual customers rather than potential customers. Satisfied customers become repeat customers. Customer satisfaction- build realistic expectations, demonstrate correct product use, stand behind the product with money back and warranty guarantees and encourage customer feedback * Post purchase dissonance- the uncomfortable feeling produced by inconsistency between beliefs and behaviors, buyer’s remorse * Customer loyalty- marketers attempt to solidify a loyal relationship with their customers * Undesirable consumer behavior- negative word of mouth * 4. Maslow's hierarchy? Maslow’s Hierarchy of N eeds * Physiological- basic biological necessities of life – food, shelter drink and rest. In most developed countries these needs are generally met, but in less fortunate countries they’re not. * Safety needs- protection and physical well being (airbags, alarms, vitamins†¦) * Love needs- relate to our interactions with others * Esteem needs- satisfy their inner desires, (yoga, meditation†¦) * Self actualization – occurs when you feel completely satisfied with your life and how you live. You don’t care what others think. * 5. BCG matrix? – Boston Consulting Group Matrix * Provides a framework for allocating resources among different units. Things are explained as being in one of four areas of a grid: * Cash cow- a unit that has a large market share in a mature, slow growing industry. Cash cows don’t require much more investment * Star- a business unit that has a large market share in a industry that is rapidly growing. They produce a lot of cash and require a lot of investment to keep up their competitive advantage * Question mark (Problem Child)- unit that has a small market share in a quickly growing market. They require a lot of resources and their potential is relatively unknown * Dog- a unit that has a small share of the market in a mature stable industry. Does not require investment. But could this money be used in a better unit? 6. Marketing strategy options- Marketing strategy- identifies a firms target market(s), a related marketing mix—their four P’s, the basis upon which the firm plans to build a sustainable competitive advantage * Sustainable competitive advantage- an advantage over the competition that is not easily copied and thus can be maintained over a long period of time. * Customer excellence- achieved when a firm develops a value based strategy for retaining loyal customers and provides outstanding customer service * ? Having a strong brand, unique merchandise and great customer service solidify this. Operational excellence- through efficient operations, excellent supply chain management, strong relationships with their suppliers and excellent human resource management to yield productive employees. * Product excellence- involves a focus on achieving high quality products; effective branding and positioning is key. * THE MARKETING PLAN * Define the business mission * Conduct a situation Analysis(Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Analysis) * Identifying and Evaluating Opportunities using segmentation, targeting and positioning * Implement Marketing Mix and Allocate Resources Evaluate Performance Using Marketing Metrics * GROWTH STRATEGIES * Market Penetration- employs the existing marketing mix and focuses the firm’s efforts on existing customers. * May include: attracting new customers to the firm’s existing market, encouraging current customers to patronize the firm more often, * Requires efforts such as increase d advertising and additional sale and promotions, intensified distribution efforts in geographic areas where the product or service is already sold. Market Development Strategy- employs the existing marketing offering to reach new market segments whether domestic or international * International expansion is riskier because firms must deal with differences in culture, government regulations, supply chains and language. * Product Development Strategy- offers a new product of service to a firm’s current market. * Diversification strategy- introduces a new product or service to a market segment that currently is not served * Diversification opportunities may be either related or unrelated. When related the current target market and or marketing mix shares something in common with the new opportunity * Unrelated diversification lacks any common elements with the present business, so they do not capitalize on the cores strengths associated with markets or products. They are very risky. 7. Different types of Marketing Research options and their pros and cons? * Market Research Process * 1) Define the problem * 2) Develop the research plan * 3) Collect data * 4) Develop findings 5) Take Actions based on your findings * Sources of Data * Primary Research- original data collected by researchers themselves * Quantitative research is data analysis based on archival data, panel data or questionnaires from a large group of respondents * Qualitative research (e. g. ethnographic research) provides a holistic view of a research problem by integrating a larger number of variables, but asking only a few respondents * Secondary research- data collected and nalyzed by someone else * Ex ploratory Research- attempts to begin to understand the phenomenon of interest; also provides initial information wen the problem lacks any clear definition * Conclusive Research- provides the information needed to confirm preliminary insights which managers can use to pursue appropriate courses of action * Observation- exploratory research method that entails examining the purchase and consumption behaviors through personal or video camera scrutiny. In-Depth interview- exploratory research technique in which trained researchers as questions, listen to and record the answers and pose additional questions to clarify or expand on a particular issue. * Survey- a systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire * Unstructured questions- open ended questions that allow respondents to answer in their own words * Structured questions- close-ended questions that proved respondents with specific answers to evaluate. How to evaluate the data- * Who co llected the data? * Would there be any reason to purposely misrepresent the facts? * For what purpose was the data collected? * How / when was the data collected? * Are the data internally consistent and logical in the light of known data sources or market factors? * Is the instrument available? 8. Coke Case? – After 99 years of Coca-Cola, executives decided to abandon their formula and start over. In the 1970’s people began preferring Pepsi to Coke during taste test groups. Coke conducted their own tests and found the same results. Looking to regain the market share, they decided to change their formula. Perception of this idea varied widely during focus group interviews. Secret tests of different coke formulas in cities across the country showed that 55% of people preferred the â€Å" New Coke. † Executives conducted a press conference to release this information. News spread quickly, and soon complaints came pouring in when people were aware. After this release only 30% of people preferred the new Coke. This is said to be the â€Å"Marketing Blunder of the Decade† 9. John Quelch's ideas on the â€Å"New Normal† (under lecture 3 or lecture 4? > slides)? * â€Å"New Normal† types of consumers Slam-on-the-brakes (sudden loss of income) Pained-but-patient(see light at the end, hope) Live-for-today(have job, party like 1999 Comfortably-well-offs(willing to postpone for now) * â€Å"New Normal† types of purchase Essentials (switch from organic to non-organic or switch brands). Treats (minimize quantity or frequency of purchases (e. g. , Haagen Daz). Post-ponables (e. g. , big ticket items like washers, TVs, remodeling, dental work, plastic surgery) Expendables (e. g. , multiple vacations per year, private schools, eating out, going out to movies) 10. Segmentation, target market, repositioning? * Types of Segmentation- * Niche Marketing * Focusing on meeting the needs of one specific target market * Often the best strategy for small companies in a large market * Can be risky if the niche is not large enough to be profitable * Differentiated Marketing Using several different marketing mixes to target several different target markets * Allows companies to target a larger number of customers * Can lead to higher market share overall * Can be difficult to maintain cost efficiencies with multiple marketing mixes * Individual Marketing * Customizing the marketing mix to meet individual needs * Ideal because marketers are meeting the needs of individual customers * Requires very detailed information on customers * Can be difficult/expen sive to implement Demographic Segmentation * Gender * Age * Race/Ethnicity * Income Level * Occupation * Education Level * Household size or composition * Psychographic Segmentation- * Based on social class, lifestyles, personality and beliefs * Often generalized from activities, interests and opinions * Can be difficult to categorize consumers but categorizations are likely to be more accurate than simple demographic segmentation * Criteria for good segmenting- * Consumers within a segment are homogeneous. * Consumers between segments are heterogeneous. The segment is profitable. * The segment is reachable. * Criteria for evaluating Segment Attractiveness * Size of the segment * Expected cost to reach the segment * Expected growth of the segment * Competition (ie: 5 forces framework) * Company objectives and resources (e. g. , synergies with other product lines or brands) * Targeting is evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to ent er. To do this, two steps are involved * Developing measures of segment attractiveness * Selecting the target market Positioning- * Goal: Show consumers that your brand can offer them more value than the competition can. * Positioning by competitors: Hertz- We’re #2, so we try harder * Positioning by attribute: Sendodyne- The toothpaste for sensitive teeth * Positioning by use or application: Nyquil- The nighttime, sniffling, sneezing, coughing, aching, stuffy head, fever so you can rest medicine * Positioning by user: Pepsi- The Choice of the new generation * Positioning by product class: Taco Bell- Think outside the bun * 11. Reliability and Validity * Reliability – is the consistency of your measurement, or the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects. In short, it is an estimate of the repeatability of your measurement. * Is an instrument reliable? * Test / Retest – in this appro ach you have the same subjects take the same survey multiple times. The idea behind test / retest is that subjects should get the same scores on test 1 and test two. * Internal consistency – in this approach you group similar questions together and measure how highly correlated they are with one another – Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of correlation used in this method * Validity – is more difficult to define than reliability but basically validity is a measure of how close we are to the truth when we conduct marketing research. Two examples: * Construct validity – are we really measuring what we think we’re measuring? e. g. , satisfaction, brand loyalty * External validity – will our results apply to other settings and contexts or are they limited to the subjects / contexts that we chose for our study? – e. g. , student subjects * * * * * *

Friday, August 16, 2019

P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project Essay

SK-II’s success is not only prestige skin care product or advanced technology but also its marketing approach to build the new brand. P&G succeeded to connect between the core technology or product concept and local market. Through Japanese market among the world’s toughest competitors, P&G developed potential source of innovations. In addition, SK-II’s marketing strategy built a new approach, Market research, Concept, Packaging, Positioning, Communications strategy. It was a big challenge that P&G shifted from Mass marketing, such as Olay brand, to Class marketing. SK-II’s marketing strategy. The primary issue concerning the case is the transformation of â€Å"SK-II† from a local brand to a global brand. This case allows us to evaluate how companies can â€Å"internationalize† their brands, and the obstacles and issues that they face while addressing this issue. Until now, SK-II can be characterized as local product in Japan with a sizable r egional customer base in Taiwan and Hong Kong. SK-II brand is positioned at the high- end of skin care and provides high margins for the P&G. To adopt Japanese independent sales style for skin-care, they were sold through special stores by well- trained beauty counselors. At first, to examine the underlying reasons behind the difference between Japanese and other corporate management, I sum up the significant reasons why P&G’s Japanese operation was a failure until 1984 as follows: 1. P&G did not take the time to determine the local needs based on the culture and common practices among Japanese customer. The product development was based on Western markets and it was assumed that it would streamline itself to other areas of the world. 2. Stagnation in innovation is a failure for almost any business. With technology always moving forward at a fast rate, it is imperative for all retail products to constantly put forth effort in  research and development. R&D is one of P&G’s strong points, yet the mismanagement of the division led to complacency in the development work. Due to the lack of improvements and the time lost, it allowed other competitors to release superior products quickly and efficiently. This ultimately led to a significant decrease in market share for P&G. 3. The Japanese distribution system is complex and difficult to assimilate to. P&G did not research and strategize to form new efforts in distributing the products efficiently and take advantage of the benefits of the distribution system commonly used. Instead of fixing the problem, P&G turned towards reduced pricing which drove the distributors away and caused sales to drop. Corporate management methods and the actual managers at headquarters in US and EU have certainly won many achievements in the US and Europe and elsewhere. In many cases, however, Western managers and Western management teams are ill prepared to succeed in Japan. In many cases, like P&G, drastic changes in thinking and management methods and personal changes at headquarters would be necessary to succeed in Japan. However, there are not many Western companies, which act on this knowledge. In this case, there were two major changes that P&G implemented to improve its operations to increase its profitability. Firstly, P&G increased R&D budget and secondly, they restructured with a plan called Organization 2005. Organization 2005 dealt with corporate cultural changes in becoming less risk averse and more productive with use of time. They encouraged innovation and creative high risk decisions with new products at a rate of more than once a month. Process changes included compensation reform with greater incentives based on performance, stock options to all employees, streamlined administrative aspects of marketing, payroll, and budgets on a more global/regional level. Structural changes included changing from 4 regional units to 7 global business units (GBUs) that were responsible for executing the global strategies of the company. Each GBU were tasked with creating a uniform production process for all their regional products so that they can be more cost effective and more open in new product rollouts. They also reduced the number of brands and only kept the ones with high sales and global potential. More power was given to lower level managers and the levels of bureaucracy were reduced by eliminating the amount of steps to the top. Among the human resources organization corporate cultures that have  changed Japan, foreign companies such as P&G has been the most influential. In fact, deregulation of labor aimed at strengthening international competitiveness and increasing the fluidity of employment has steadily eroded the traditional system of lifetime employment, seniority-based wages, and enterprise welfare at Japanese businesses. Many Japanese companies are now moving more toward a performance- based system when it comes to rewarding and promoting employee to be global company. In order to figure out whether SK-II is a product that can be global brand, we need to identify reasons for SK-II’s success in the Japanese market. First, by based on research of Japanese market, P&G made clear targeting and positioning, and developed new products which fulfilled customers’ needs, built the effective distribution. As a result, P&G could establish differentiation advantages for the following. †¢ Product: â€Å"Foaming massage cloth†, Elegant dispensing box â€Å"Foaming massage cloth† increase skin circulation through a massage while boosting skin clarity due to the microfibers’ ability to clean pores and trap dirt. †¢ Price: Premium price †¢ Place: Luxury and counter at department store †¢ Promotion: Counseling by beauty counselor, TV advertising, Beauty magazines P&G utilized and rebuilt its distribution channels of using trained personnel at beauty counters throughout Japan. SK-II’s success had been achieved in a culture where the customers, distribution channels, and competitors were different from in other countries. For example, Japanese customers more educated, average Japanese women spent 4.5 minutes on her face cleansing, and most sophisticated users of beauty products in the world. On the other hand, in China customers due to Olay’s education recently moved from a one-step skin care process to a three-step cleansing and moisturizing process. However, unlike China, Europe had a large and sophisticated group of beauty-conscious customers who is already practiced a multistep regimen. As we see it is model is transferable but they have to modify some of models characteristic depending on customers behavior, competitors and market factor. P&G Japan’s competitive advantage is firm-specific but SK-II’s advantage is country-specific. I would suggest that de Cesare would be to expand SK-II brand within Japan. The company should continue to build on SK-II’s success in Japan. By building on brand’s  success in the proven domestic market, Procter & Gamble would be able to fully utilize the company’s competitive advantages. In this case, the company has achieved only 3% of the market share of the $10 billion beauty product market, and in addition the Japanese skin care market is forecasted to grow at 28% two-year growth rate. Given these opportunities, de Cesare is well advised to strongly expand SK-II brand within Japan. There are other attributes that make Japanese market attractive; these include brand name recognition and development of new products such as anti-aging and skin whitening that could expand the SK-II product line. Since the Japanese market is highly competitive and requires constant innovation, the Japanese division need to constantly introducing new products that could possibly be introduced to other markets as well. Increased market share and profitability of SK-II brand would also increase the brand’s standing among various Procter & Gamble brands; this increased awareness of SK-II brand could potentially pave the way for brand’s internationalization later on. The Japanese market is also one of the biggest markets for prestige skin care products, not only that, the country is also expected to see the skin care market (both main and prestige) grow by 28% over the next 2 years. However, there are some risks if the de Cesare chooses to only expand into the Japanese mark et. This could potentially make P&G Japan isolated from the rest of the world markets. P&G Japan could be oblivious to changes in the world market, and miss opportunities that could have allowed collaboration in R&D with other divisions that could have led to introduction of new and innovative products. To remain a major market player, P&G needs to keep expanding its products at a global level. I do not believe that the choices between expansion into China or Europe or increasing sales in Japan are all mutually exclusive with each other. All three of the markets can be critical to the successful globalization of P&G and its brands. The European market will probably prove to be the most difficult to penetrate, yet by concentrating on specific cities and markets, there is still potential for P&G’s superior product to prevail. This option would be the lowest priority of the three. P&G will need to keep up with technology and continue with new developments if they want to remain a leader in the prestige market in Japan. In terms of short term profitability, the Japanese market is unmatched. Cesare has forecasted an  earnings growth potential of 200% in 6 or 7 years based off a $150 million sales level. However, the focus should be on the Chinese market based on the long term potential for growth and profitability. All the other major market players are already present in the market so P&G don’t want to fall too behind with their competitors. Although China has a relatively small subset of their population that can afford the expensive SK-II product, it also has the highest growth rate of skin care use at an astounding 28%. With China’s economy and GDP growing at a fast rate, the potential for more able consumers of the 1.2 billion residents is seemingly limitless. In my conclusion, the first priority is they would be to expand SK-II brand within Japan to keep expanding its products at a global level. The next, they should be focus on the Chinese market based on the long term potential for growth. As the lowest priority, the European market will probably prove by concentrating on specific cities and markets.