Wednesday, October 30, 2019


HUMAN AGENCY AND COMMUNITY IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD - Essay Example Social norms and practices can be greatly affected by the changing global perspective, but the predominant power of an individual can possibly overcome this kind of situation. The complex play of both human agency and social modifications complicates the whole process of world change. Though individual efforts by acting for and against them are recognizable, equally, certain foundations of human societies can remain influential and powerful. The comprehensive ideas springing from the complex process of change can modify existing notions of human individuals about their society (see Engestrom et. al). The concept of gender for instance is affected by numerous factors existing in the social world. Today, discourses about certain social issues particularly gender (Foucault 18) are being motivated by the changing political mindsets of the people. In the literary world, texts and other creative narratives explicating new issues are being published and enjoyed by many readers. In the works of Dai Sijie and Ha Jin for instance, we can see how the clashes of social and individual ideas through discourse are outlined in the contemporary literature. In this paper, a discussion on the aspects of human agency and social development facing the challenges of globalization will be explored by focusing on the related reflection of Dai Sijie’s and Ha Jin’s stories. ... In the title story of Ha Jin’s book, an example of a man being arrested because of the ‘crimes’ of homosexuality is very intriguing as the seemingly ‘undesired’ act was committed by a married man (Ha 3-17). In this event, sudden mind-changing encounter deliberates questions on the brewed conviction of the people (in the story and the readers) as issues about homosexuality are brought about. People will now examine homosexuality as something not contained in certain ‘stereotyped’ individuals. In here, we see how Ha Jin’s book becomes a discourse of gender issues. Consequently, we can see in the story several factors affecting the characters and the readers’ mood. Social influences as norms about the said issue are being modified in contrast with the struggling function of the individuals involved. Gender as a social concept, as well as other issues like morality, fidelity and the like, is being analyzed by human agency as rep resented by the characters in the story. In Dai Sijie’s Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress, a representative condition of a man facing the complex clashing of new ideas and the old ones in a setting that can be attributed to globalization is illustrated. The personas in the story are engulfed by a situation where their powers as human individuals are spirited in order to overcome the difficulties in their lives and ultimately, find happiness. The cultural revolution evident in the story can be seen as one of the steps people and the society can have in order to adapt to the continuously changing world. The way characters in the story acted upon particular situations and the way the narrator weighs things in his reflective lines represents the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Ghosts and Supernatural with close reference to The Woman in Black and Violet Car Essay Example for Free

Ghosts and Supernatural with close reference to The Woman in Black and Violet Car Essay Ghost stories are all about death and dying. They help us to understand what happens after we die. They try to build up peoples fear of death and dying. They use peoples fear to build up suspense. Sometimes the author of the book will use the characters in the book to keep the reader wondering, grieving people sometime imagine things and the author can use this to keep the reader interested in the book. The reader would be wondering if it is the imagination of the character or a real ghost. Often ghost stories are based on someones premature or violent death. Some stories can use this to add more fear, because it could be an ordinary person that gets killed. Sometimes the author writes as if it had happened to them, this could help the reader to believe the story more. The Violet Car is about the violent death of a young girl. The man that had killed Mr. Eldridges daughter was driving though the village in his violet car. He pulled up to Mr. Eldridge, and asked him for directions to Hexham. It was a foggy day, and Mr. Eldridge didnt like the driver so he told him that it was straight on, and the driver drove straight of the edge of a cliff. Mr. Eldridge was haunted with the pictures of the car driving off the cliff and everyday he saw it. The only way that he could stop the visions was to stop the car from driving off the edge of the cliff. Mr. Eldridge stood on the corner of the road to stop the car as it came round the corner, it hit Mr. Eldridge and knocked him to the ground. The cause of death was heart failure, but he was really killed by the same car that had killed his daughter. The Woman in Black is about a ghost that haunts Eel Marsh House, an isolated house with a very dark secret. There is a ghost of a young woman that lost her son on the marshes near Eel Marsh House, which haunts the house. Mr. Drablow, the previous owner, died and Arthur Kipps is sent to sort out every thing in the house and make sure all the legal documents are correct. The ghost is of a woman called Jennet Humfrye, who had a son but was not allowed to keep him so she gave him up to Alice Drablow. Jennet came to see here son all the time and one day the child had been out in the town and come back on a horse and cart, but it had gone off the tracks and into the marsh. Arthur hears noises on the marsh of people dying, drowning in the mud of the marshes. Every time the ghost is seen a baby dies, but when no child died they thought that the curse of the old house had ended, but Arthurs child and wife die in an accident and the woman in black was left to haunt Crythin Gifford. The books are similar in many aspects, they are both written in the first person. Writing in first person is a common practice by Authors to make the reader believe the story more. The Woman in Black is written as if you are Arthur and the Violet Car is written from the point of view of the nurse. They are similar because they both try and achieve the same thing, just using different techniques. Susan Hill keeps the readers attention by using short sharp sentences, whereas Edith Nesbit uses lots of descriptions to keep the attention of the reader. The Woman in Black uses lots of very good descriptive words; they are very good for working up the suspense even more. The Woman in Black and Violet Car are both based on grief, The Woman in Black is the grief of Jennet, the Violet Car is about Mr. Eldridge and the grief he had because he sent the car off the edge of the cliff. In The Woman in Black Susan Hill make an eerie atmosphere by using short onomatopoeic sentences such as, Bump. Bump. Pause. Bump. Bump. Pause. Bump. Bump. Bump. Bump. Bump. Bump This kind of sentence helps to build up anticipation and anxiety. It is like you want to find out what is going to happen next but are too scared to find out. She does not use cliffhangers at the end of a chapter; however she does use them at the end of some paragraphs. The Violet Car is a very different book in that respect, Edith Nesbit writes in a different way to Susan Hill. E. Nesbit didnt write in short sentences; instead she told the story in a way that made you want to continue reading. Both the stories are traditional well told ghost stories that use different techniques to get the same result. They are both interesting and exciting and the kind of story that you dont want to put down because it is so full of suspense. I think that The Woman in Black is a better ghost story because a lot more happens in it and it has a more complex plot to the Violet Car, however The Woman in Black is a book whereas the Violet Car is a short story. The Woman in Black was described has Heartstoppingly chilling and I agree with this.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Interview with an Artist :: Essays Papers

Interview with an Artist The artist/illustrator I chose to contact was Mark McKee. He’s an illustrator/designer for World Industries, a skateboard and snowboard company. Some of his work has been very controversial and lawsuits have been filed on several occasions. Specifically for a board with a Winnie the Pooh look-alike and also for a design similar to a L. Ron Hubbard book. But I particularly liked his original work, specifically flame-boy and the smiley devil guy. Contacting him wasn’t too hard; I found the number for World Industries in a snowboard magazine. When I called I was given a new number, since they changed offices. The secretary put me right through to Mark McKee’s voice mail when I called the new number. I left a message and then realized I may not get a call back. Who wants to call someone to answer questions? So I figured I take a little more initiative and find out when he would be there so I could chat with him. After a second call to the secretary I found out I needed to call back in just about an hour and a half. I was put right through to Mark McKee on my third call to this number. He said he was more than happy to help me in any way possible. But after a few minutes of my interviewing he asked if "this was for real or was I just *censored*ing with him?" Apparently some friends of his like to play pranks and he thought this was one of them. I explained that this was a silly assignment, but it had to be done so that I could get my degree. A friend was the one who first got him interested in skateboard graphics, he first worked in the BMX industry after graduating with a design degree from UCLA. He was fortunate enough to not have to do any self-promotion after college and kind of "fell into" the job he has now. His official title is Art Director, according to him that’s what his card says. He over sees five other artists at World Industries that produce skateboard and snowboard graphics. He didn’t want to give any advice, he said "didn’t like doing it" and had nothing more to say about it.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Child Marriage Essay

Child marriage is India is an important human rights violation because many girls are suffering throughout their marriage. Girls’ ages 3-18 marry older men ages 30-80. Parents send their daughters to get married because they need money to help their family. It is very depressing to see young girls marry a stranger they never met. The addition problem with child marriage is their health risks. One solution is, people in India need to show a documentaries to the government of how many girls suffers in child marriage. Secondly, the government in India should make a law banning parents from forcing a child marriage. In addition, women in India should be united. Finally, a way to prevent child marriage is education. This is important to me because this is a human rights violation and child marriage needs to stop immediately. The addition problem with child marriage is their health risk. Once when they get married girls are taken to their husband’s household, where they need to be accepted as a wife. While they are with their husband in a new environment rather than being with their family, this can cause them depression. They will feel rejected and lonely that they missed their families. Girls who were married before 18 were twice as likely to report being beaten, slapped, or threatened by their husbands as girls who married later. They don’t have power over the men for their decisions but if they do, they’ll get beaten by their husbands. If they escape from their marriage, husbands will get them back. For example: One journalist named Stephanie went to a hospital and saw many young girls that are beaten, burned, and have cuts in their skin by their husbands. The girl told Stephanie she didn’t want to be with her husband because he’s being very cruel to her and he beat her when she broke his favorite TV. To be abused can be a health risk. Another health risk is girls underage get pregnant. Girls ages 3-18 often feel raped because they don’t want to have sex with their husbands. In addition, Young girls ages 9-19 are giving birth causing them a big health risk. For example, â€Å"girls that are younger in 12 years  old, died giving birth and some who are not gets miscarriage. Mostly important of all, they get HIV infections and died giving birth during their younger age.â₠¬  (Childline) Secondly, people in India need to show documentaries to the Government of how many girls suffered in child marriage. If one person in India shows their government their documentaries everything will change. Let’s say the government saw a documentary about girls living a hard life in India throughout their child marriage. For example, they viewed death or girls that were beaten by their husband and died during child birth. This will show the Government how girls were suffering. For example, the girl who is named Bibi Aisha, told her father that she did not want to get married to a stranger. Her new husband and her father took her to the mountains and cut her nose and her ears. She did not know where the blood is coming from she said. (Too Young to Wed: The Secret World of Child Brides). But it’s very depressing how hard she has to accept the child marriage because of her father and her family. Girls in young ages don’t understand why their parents are sending them to marriage and are afraid to say no. Girls who got married are living a hard life like pregnancy. Today young girls ages 9-19 die giving birth and have miscarriages. Husband’s get furious with their wives and kill or abuse them. This is the documentary should be shown to the Government how these girls are suffering so the Government can change the law and help the girls too. If no one made any documentary in India to show the Government then child marriage will continue in every generation. The Government should enforce the law for not banning parents from forcing child marriage. Many young girls are forced to married by their parents. If they say no to their parents, their parents will abuse them and kept forcing them. The reason that they send their child to marriage is because they don’t have any money to feed for their family. For example, many girls kept saying no they don’t want to get married but instead of saying no, their father’s would kill their child or abusing them. Forcing child marriage is a very bad thing but families are more concerned about money than their children. Other parents says that it is a law to force a child marriage. Was there a law made to force children to marry? For example: â€Å"Whoever, being male above twenty one years of age contracts a child marriage shall be  punished with simple imprisonment which may extend to three months and shall also be liable to fine.† (The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929) Then why do the parents disobey the law? Throughout generations, mothers who were once a child bride married with an older man forcing her child to get married like she did. Since, the parents noticed that they can’t afford to feed their families, one of their daughter needs to get married with an older man. Why the older men? Because older men in India who had worked hard and got educating well make a good money so the father can sell his daughter to get married. When their daughters are going to get married, their parents and the village made a private place to celebrate their marriage at night. They celebrate at night so no one even the government, would know what is happening there. If one government can disguised himself like the rest of the people and watched the child that are getting married he will stopping them and says it is illegal and they should be punished what the laws says. In addition, women in India should be united. Many years have passed since any girl sto od up and said no to marriage. Perhaps, some may have said no to their child marriage but it’s tough. For example, if any girls escape their child marriage, their family or their husband will find her and take her back with her husband. Many girls are getting married every 3 seconds no matter what ages they are. If any women’s stood up, made protest and awareness says no to child marriage then this can change the worldwide view that child marriage is wrong. If any country like in United States sees it in the news they would help them too. This is why women in India needs to be united to say no to child marriage because they had known what they are suffering for, and they don’t want the same for their children. The last solution is how to prevent from child marriage is education. In India, girls who are not married were still in school but their parents that don’t had money can’t feed their families so they will send their daughters to be married. Every girl who gotten married and has children wishes they can continue to go to school so they can have a better job. Example of the video says, that not many girls don’t get educated in India because they got married and gotten pregnant). Why can’t the parents supposedly know that going to school can provide their daughters a good job in the future? It seems that their fathers are the one who wanted their daughters to get  married in early ages because in their present time with the family now are very poor and had nothing to eat. So the fathers know it will take longer for their daughters’ to finish school till they grow up. That is why their fathers who met Indian men who have money are sending their daught ers to marry them so they can get money. If a girl gets education she can have normal life with their families so they won’t get married. The more they will study they can get a job and help their families with money. Even when they get good education after they finished school that is where they can get married and have a good life. In 1929, in India they had made the law about the child marriage. The law says any men above twenty one years of age contracts a child marriage shall be punished. But throughout generations in India, parents said it is the law to force a child marriage. Parents that can’t afford money to feed of their families has to send their daughters’ to get married. Older men who had worked hard and get good money will be married the child bride so the parents will have the money. If any girls gotten married, they will not be able continuing educated in school because of their pregnancy. Their pregnancies will be a health risk for young girls because they had die during child birth and miscarriages. If any girl in India shows the Government their documentaries about living a hard life throughout their child marriage. Then, the government would know how girls are suffering. Women in India should be united to make protest and awareness that will show the worldwide view that child mar riage is wrong. Today in many countries like in India continuing the child marriage but if anyone can make one voice to change it’ll be changed for the good.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Pips visit to Satis House Essay

Discuss how the theme of class is developed through Pip’s visit to Satis House ‘Great Expectations’ is a novel was written in the early 1860’s. The novel was written in the early 1860’s. The genre of ‘Great Expectation’ is a bildungsroman. This essay will be discussing how the theme of social class is developed through Pip’s visit to Satis House. Dickens’ aim was to show the corruption in English society at the time and he displays it through Pip’s, the main character, visits to Satis house, a house owned by a mysterious, middle classed woman with a beautiful daughter that is bemused by Pip’s appearance and lower class and therefore abuses him for it. Dickens portraits the upper class as evil, selfish villains in the novel and is on the lower class peoples side, always revealing the disgraceful riches the upper class owned while the poor got poorer. â€Å"Great Expectations† portrays the great escalation in the social hierarchy of a young lad named Pip as he progresses in his life, Starting as an orphan and apprentice blacksmith, his horizons are widened through contact with the upper classes. He strives to better himself and make that most difficult of journeys across the boundaries of class. Great Expectations is a social commentary that gives a strong opinion on society. It will also discuss Charles Dickens’ message of how he views the upper, middle and working classes. Dickens was brought up in a working class background. There was a noticeable division between classes in the early 19th century. Upper class people were able to stay at home without having to go to work. The middle class were able to stand over the working class (who did all the work) and live off the money they earned for them working in their mines, factories or farms. Working class citizens lived in small houses with only one or two rooms within the whole house, In ‘Great Expectations’, Charles Dickens portrays the upper classes through the characters of Miss. Havisham and Estella. Estella, like Pip is an orphan, however, unlike him, she has had a background of privilege typical for a Victorian upper class child. Pip is a classic example of the lowest level of a working class child; he’s an orphan, lives a miserable life with his obnoxious and beastly sister, and gets abused by everyone that sees him. ‘Universal struggle,’ this is how Pip describes life as a desolate young boy. Pip strives to become his dream fantasy; a gleaming, bright gentleman and to do that he must overcome many things. Firstly, Pip can barely read or write, â€Å"I struggled through the alphabet as if it had been a bramble bush,† this just adds emphasis on the true lowness of Pip’s class as only the rich got educated while the poor got overlooked. The children of the aristocracy had a privileged life; they had rich clothes and many toys. Typically, their father had to be obeyed and feared. Manners were considered very important: the children had to be well spoken and only speak when spoken to. They had to be looked after by a nanny not their mother. The children were taught by a private tutor until they were old enough to go to school, however only boys were allowed to go. Many working class children like Pip, lived in the country, in cottages with their families. They had no school at the beginning of the Victorian era as children had to work to help their parents. A number of families then considered moving to towns to get jobs. Town children lived in overcrowded streets which quickly became slums; children had to share one bed or sleep on the floor; they had a bad diet and dressed badly. They were prone to diseases such as, smallpox, measles, diphtheria and tuberculosis. These children worked in local mines, factories or as chimney sweepers. This shows us the different lifestyles of the rich and the poor and how unfairly the poor were treated. In the opening scene of the novel, Pip is discovered sitting by his parents’ grave from which we learn that he is an orphan. From this perspective the reader can see just how far Pip will have to climb to achieve the status of a ‘gentleman’. In typical Bildungsroman style, our sympathies for the main character are aroused by the pathos of the scene. However, it is not all tears. There is also humour, for example, where Pip recalls his belief that his five brothers, â€Å"†¦ had all been born on their backs with their hands in their trousers-pockets, and had never taken them out in this state of existence. † The reader is lulled into a state of contemplative pity at the plight of the â€Å"†¦ bundle of shivers growing afraid of it all. † This atmosphere is brutally shattered by the appearance of the escaped convict, a figure nevertheless more comic than truly terrifying, and one who will later help Pip achieve his dreams of social improvement. Thus, Dickens exploits the comedic as well as the tragic potential of the characters and settings in his writing to develop the theme of class. This is also evident in the visits to Satis House. At the beginning of the novel we find out that Pip is illiterate, for example he says: â€Å"I fell among those thieves, the nine figures, who seems every evening to do something now to disguise themselves and baffle recognition. † This shows that Pip can barely read or write. He does not have a formal education or go to a normal school, but an evening school in the village ran by Mr. Wopsle’s great-aunt; â€Å"much of my unassisted, and more by the help of Biddy. † This shows the readers that Pip has learnt more from Biddy then the school. Pip’s desire for self-improvement is the main reason as to why the novel’s title is ‘Great Expectations’; because he believes that he has the ‘possibility of advancement’ in life, that he has ‘Great Expectations’ about his future. We find out later on in the novel that Pip longs to become a gentleman; in order to do this, he needs an education. From Pip’s first visit to Satis House, we realize the staggering difference between Pip and Miss Havisham’s child, Estella, and how their class and background affect their attitudes towards each other and their views on society and life overall. The setting of Satis House flabbergasts Pip so much, he can barely explain everything around him, â€Å"satins, and lace, and silks all of white†¦ † The description brings to mind a very rich, selfish and stagnant person which is how Dickens represents all the rich and upper-class people. Pip is confused of how to prepare himself for his first visit to Satis House, â€Å"I was not at ease regarding the manner in which I should acquaint myself under that lady’s roof. † This shows that the poor scarcely get in contact with the rich and are bewildered with how to present them. On the other hand, Estella proudly calls Pip by the name â€Å"boy† and mocks his clothes which in turn makes Pip realise his â€Å"lower class† so he therefore begins to clean and pamper himself after the suffering. Dickens builds up tension by describing Satis House as decayed which is a reflection of Miss Havisham’s odd personality and it’s a bit bias to be honest, because all Dickens’ fantasies about the rich being evil, rude and a bit crazy are fitted into one character especially and her house. One time, Miss Havisham questions Pip in such a way at one point, that he gets scared out of his wits and his answers to her spiteful questions are all monosyllabic, â€Å"who is it? † â€Å"Pip†¦ † In essence, Dickens’ disrespect to the upper-class is such, that he represents them all in one lady that is so low, she bully’s innocent little boys and makes them feel ashamed for who they are and even makes Pip accept he’s lower then her which one may argue is a good thing as it inspires Pip to greatness later on but is atrocious, giving that status is not all there is to life. Pip only fully realises his lower classed lifestyle when he encounters the prominent Estella. Estella is the elegant, youthful, proud girl raised by Ms Havisham. Dickens juxtaposes the characters of Pip and Estella, by showing the two different worlds they coexist in and the different classes that occupy their worlds, Dickens also tries to symbolise their characters as the higher and lower class of society. Estella symbolises the superior class; this is shown through her beauty, wealth and the confidence that resolves inside her. Pip meets Estella who has contempt for him and his working class background. Estella makes fun out of Pip’s hands and boots by saying: â€Å"what coarse hands he has! And what thick boots! † This proves that there is a big difference between classes. Estella enjoys making Pip fell bad about himself and his social background. The tone Estella uses to speak to Pip is very rude: † ‘Ah! ‘ said the girl, ‘ but you see, she don’t. ‘ † This shows the readers that Estella feels superior to Mr. Pumblechook. Furthermore, it has connotations that state Estella is not afraid to speak to her elders, she thinks she knows what Miss. Havisham is thinking; this depicts how Miss. Havisham has brought her up – to be confident, mean and rude to men. By saying, â€Å"Ah†, she is shown to believe that is better than Pumblechook. However, saying, â€Å"but you see, she don’t†, shows that she is not really upper class because she uses slang unlike an upper class person usually would not do. Estella tries to be upper class but she is betrayed by her lower class language. Readers are invited to believe that she wants to be upper class because she likes looking down on others. Pip reacts in an odd manner. Estella continually uses â€Å"boy† to address Pip but he addresses her by â€Å"miss†. This juxtaposition shows us that Estella thinks it is appropriate to be disrespectful to Pip as he is unimportant because of his class, whereas Pip is shown to have respect for her. This could be because he thinks that Estella is more important because of her upper class background or whether it is because of his upbringing – Mrs Joe and Joe taught him to respect everyone no matter what class they are. Pip is shown to have desire towards Estella; â€Å"returned the young lady, who was pretty and seemed very proud. † This shows that Pip already has affection towards her. Furthermore, he already shows that he s interested in her. Later on in the novel, Pip is asked by Miss. Havisham, what he thinks of Estella; to which Pip replies, â€Å"I think she is very pretty. † This again shows that Pip has feelings of desire for Estella, though they have only just met. After Pips visit to Satis House Pip notices the difference between upper class and working class, between him and Estella. He hates the difference and he wants to be a gentleman not a blacksmith. Pip thinks that if he has any chance with Estella he has to become a stereotypical upper class man. Pip’s mind has no become poisoned with Estella’s words and even though he is not yet an upper class person he is beginning to think like one. His attitudes towards Joe have changed. This is where Pip’s transformation begins to take place and from here the title of the novel comes into the picture. The expectations he wishes to achieve are great. From this chapter we can see the separation between the rich and poor. I think the message Dickens was trying to pass on to the readers of this novel was that, much poverty existed in the world, and even though the rich and the poor lived so close together in the world, they lives were worlds apart. I think Dickens own life experiences informed this viewpoint. Just as Pip, Dickens lived both lower and higher class lifestyle. As a child he was poor and had to work for a living so he was able to experience how it was to live the life of struggle and poverty, however when he grew up he became a writer and had a higher class lifestyle being able to observe how close rich and poor lived, but with such different lives. I think that Dickens had sympathy for the both the higher and lower class people. He had sympathy for the poor because they had to struggle to survive and had to work very hard for such things as money and food to feed the mouths of their families. Conversely I think he felt sympathy for the higher class also, he showed this through Ms Havisham and Satis House. We can see that he has sympathy for the rich as Dickens makes Satis House like a prison and Ms Havisham like a sad old hag that exists inside the walls of the prison, he is also showing the reader that even though she is rich and has money she is sad and imprisoned within her home and her sorrows, I think this is how many higher class people and families lives feel, so this is why he feels sympathy towards them. The bildungsroman genre is a story in where a character grows up and has higher understanding of the world. Pip’s visit to Satis House fits perfectly into the bildungsroman genre, this is due to the fact that after Pips visit to Satis House he grows up, not necessarily in age but he grows up inside; he becomes more mature and also gets a higher understanding of his class and place in society. The Visit to Satis House also reveals that in this world, materialism is a very common trait that presides in the hearts of all individuals, hearts which can forget their closest friends and even family for a chance at an elevated class in life. Finally Dickens is also leaving his final message that you don’t need all the riches to become an ethical person leading a prosperous life. This is the thought that Dickens wishes is engraved in the minds of all who read the novel.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Integrated Marketing Communications of Transcom Beverage Bangladesh Essays

Integrated Marketing Communications of Transcom Beverage Bangladesh Essays Integrated Marketing Communications of Transcom Beverage Bangladesh Essay Integrated Marketing Communications of Transcom Beverage Bangladesh Essay Integrated Marketing Communications is a simple concept. It ensures that all forms of communications and messages are carefully linked together. At its most basic level, Integrated Marketing Communications, or IMC, as well call it, means integrating all the promotional tools, so that they work together in harmony. Promotion is one of the Ps in the marketing mix. Promotions have their own mix of communications tools. All of these communications tools work better if they work together in harmony rather than in isolation. Their sum is greater than their parts providing they speak consistently with one voice all the time, every time. This is a management concept that is designed to make all aspects of marketing communication such as advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing work together as a unified force, rather than permitting each to work in isolation. About Transcom Originated with tea plantations in 1885, TRANSCOM today is one of the leading and fastest growing diversified business houses in the country employing over 10000 people. Not many industrial groups in Bangladesh can claim a history of continuous business pursuits stretching back over 125 years! Initially tea and later jute formed the backbone of the family business. Although these are still part of   the activities and contributing marginally to the overall group turnover. Presently those early industrial ventures have moved over to businesses involving high-tech manufacturing, international trading and distribution, forming strong ties with a host of blue chip multinational companies. In recent years, TRANSCOM has emerged as the largest media house in Bangladesh. Transcom Beverages Ltd Transcom Beverage Ltd (TBL) is the exclusive PepsiCo Franchisee for Bangladesh. TBL owns and operates modern plants in Dhaka and Chittagong for bottling the renowned soft drink brands such as, Pepsi, 7UP, Mirinda, Slice, Mountain Dew, Pepsi Diet and 7UP Light. The company is emerging with the motto to deliver sustained growth in Bangladesh and move towards dominant Beverage Company, delighting ; nourishing every Bangladeshi, by best eeting their everyday beverages needs ; stakeholders by delivering performance with purpose, through talented people. 2009 has been an amazing year for TBL, winning several spectacular awards as PepsiCos exclusive bottling partner in Bangladesh. For its extraordinary and outstanding venture through excellence TBL has been rewarded with several prestigious national and international recognitions. Pic: Products of Transcom Beverage The basic tools used to accomplish an organization’s communication objectives are often referred to as the promotional mix. These tools include: * Advertising – any paid form of non personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor * Direct marketing – communication directly with target customers to generate a response and/or transaction * Interactive/Internet marketing – communication through interactive media such as the Internet, CD-ROMS and kiosks. Sales promotion – marketing activities that provide extra value or incentives to sales force, distributors, or consumers to stimulate immediate sales * Publicity/Public Relations – Publicity is a form of non-personal communication not directly paid for or run under identified sponsorship. Public relations is a management function which executes programs of action to earn public understanding and acceptance an enhance the image of the company. * Per sonal Selling – person-to-person communication between a seller and buyer. Transcom Beverage’s Promotional mix: Advertising Transcom use both Television Commercials and print ads for their advertisement. They also use billboard and radio as a tool of advertising. Transcom beverage advertise its most two renowned brands in Bangladesh – Pepsi and Seven Up. Mountain dew is also used in advertisement, but no such ad is particularly made for Bangladeshi target people only. But Advertisement of Pepsi and Seven Up is prepared targeting Bangladeshi people and by Bangladeshi IMC agencies. Currently, Asiatic 360 is the agency doing the advertisement for Transcom Beverage. TVC 7-Up: The TVC shown below is for 7up. The ad is promoting the newly launched go pack at that time of advertisement campaign. They also has TVC of 7 up with the tagline †Give freshness of life to your mood†: Pepsi: Pepsi endorse two famous Bangladeshi Cricketer Mashrafe bin Mortoza and Sakib Al Hasan for TVC. One TVC campaign has the tagline â€Å"If there is thrist everything is available† and the other one focus on Sakib’s special shot super scoop. Print Ad: Transcom only publish print ad when there is some special event like Eid aor World Cup (Where they partner) or when there is some promotional offer is going on. Pic: 7-up print ad Interactive/Internet marketing Transcom do participate in interactive promotional campaign. During world cup cricket 2011, they had a dedicated website to communicate with its customers who are cricket fan. There the fan could post their comment as well. The website was made with wallpapers and other stuffs of its endorsed celebrity Mashrafe, Sakib and Tamim Iqbal. The website domain is www. pepsichangethe gamebd. com. Pepsi is also using Facebook as a tool of interactive communication recently: Sales promotion Transcom has organized huge promotional campaign during World Cup Cricket 2011. By consuming Pepsi consumers got the chance to visit final match of World Cup. Apart from that they won many attractive prizes through that proportional campaign. The campaign was held by providing a hidden number inside the cap of the bottle. The number then has to be text messaged to a certain number. Then the group of highest ssm sender got the chance to participate in a cricket game competition. Through that competition they got the chance to win nattractive prizes. Pic: Winner of Final match ticket Pic: Other prize winner of the world cup campaign Pic: Collection Card for all consumer Transcom also arrange university based adventurous promotional campaign for its Mountain Dew Brand. Transcom’s team goes to different universities an involve students in that promotional campaigns where participants have to show some adventurous skills. Pic: News on Promotional campaign at DU Transcom Beverage provide free cutouts to its distributors to promote the retail sellers shop as well their brand. For example, here is a enhanced board of 7-up in a retail shop: Public Relation Transcom spent a lot for public relation. Global Pepsi became the drinks partner of World Cup Cricket this year and thus Transcm also took part in public relation in this regard. Pepsi is also the official beverage partner of Bangladesh National Cricket team. Pic: Transcom and BCB signing Ceremony Transcom beverage also sponsor some local cricket events. Transcom provided the opportunity to its consumer to take photographs with WC trophy. Mountain Dew of Transcom was the proud sponsor of Muhit- the second person of Bangladesh to reach the peak of Mount Everest. Pic: Mountain Dew Sponsoring Muhit- the Everest winenr

Monday, October 21, 2019

Essay Sample on Nibiru Planet Is It a Myth

Essay Sample on Nibiru Planet Is It a Myth Free sample essay on Nibiru Planet: A lot has been said about the Nibiru Planet and its association with end of the world myths. Since there are so many theories going around about what this Nibiru planet is, many people have been misled to believe that it is the humongous planet that will one day bring life on earth to a disastrous end. So what exactly is the Nibiru Planet? Nibiru is a word that was derived from Zecharia Sitchin’s ancient astronaut works. Doomsday believers believe that the world will end when a planet-size object from space will crash and destroy the earth. This idea was first propagated by Nancy Lieder, a self professed alien contactee. She said that she had been sent to warn humans of the impeding destruction by a gigantic Planet X, which many of her followers said was Nibiru. However there is no evidence that such a planet will come crashing on earths surface, or even that it exists. The idea that a planet sized extraterrestrial object will crash onto earth is one thing that has not been proven scientifically. When Nibiru theorists say that the planet is very close to the earth, it cannot be true since all planets that are close to earth are normally visible through the naked eye, or by use of a telescope. To counter this, the believers of Nibiru collision say that the planet has been hiding behind the sun waiting to fall on earth. However, this cannot be true because it would be difficult not to see the planet when the earth is orbiting around the sun. It is clear then that the Nibiru planet collision is just a myth that does not exist.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Pride and Prejudice Quotes

Pride and Prejudice Quotes The following quotes from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen are some of the most recognizable lines in English literature. The novel, which follows the push-and-pull relationship between Elizabeth Bennet and Fitzwilliam Darcy, deals with themes of love, pride, social expectations, and preconceived opinions. In the quotes that follow, well analyze how Austen conveys these themes with her trademark wry wit. Quotes About Pride I could easily forgive his pride, if he had not mortified mine. (Chapter 5) When Elizabeth speaks this quote, she’s fresh off Darcy’s slight of her at the first ball, where she overheard him judging her not â€Å"handsome enough† for him to dance with. In context, where she and her family are discussing the ball with their neighbors, she tosses the line off in a good-natured, quipping sort of way. However, a closer read does suggest some element of truth to it: as the story progresses, it becomes evident that this unpleasant first meeting has colored Elizabeth’s perception of Darcy, making her more susceptible to Wickham’s lies. This quote is also the beginning of a running pattern through the novel: Elizabeth and Darcy are each able to acknowledge that they possess a shared flaw (Elizabeth acknowledges a degree of pride, Darcy admits that his prejudices are formed quickly and irrevocably). The theme of pride often connects to an inability to recognize one’s own flaws, so although the characters still have a ways to go before they’ll reach a happy conclusion, an admission of some flaws indicates that this will be a comedy where that conclusion is possible rather than a tragedy where a tragic flaw will be realized too little, too late. Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously. A person may be proud without being vain. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us. (Chapter 5) Mary Bennet, the middle Bennet sister, is neither frivolous like her younger sisters nor well-adjusted like her older sisters. She’s studious to a fault and is quite fond of philosophizing and moralizing, as she does here, where she inserts herself into a conversation about Mr. Darcy’s behavior at the ball by seizing on their mention of his â€Å"pride† and jumping in with her philosophy. It’s a clear indicator of her lack of social skills and her simultaneous desire to be included in society. Although it’s delivered in Mary’s moralizing, pretentious manner, this quote is not entirely untrue. Pride – and vanity – are central themes to the story, and Mary’s definitions give readers a way to distinguish the social snobbery of Miss Bingley or Lady Catherine and the inflated self-important of Mr. Collins from the pride of Mr. Darcy. Pride and Prejudice explores personal pride as a stumbling block to true understanding and happiness, but it also presents the proudest character – Darcy – as one who does not care much what other people think of him, as evidenced by his cold social behavior. The contrast between care for perceptions and care for internal values is explored throughout the novel. â€Å"But vanity, not love, has been my folly. Pleased with the preference of one, and offended by the neglect of the other, on the very beginning of our acquaintance, I have courted prepossession and ignorance, and driven reason away, where either were concerned. Till this moment I never knew myself.† (Chapter 36) There is a term in classical Greek drama, anagnorisis, that refers to a character’s sudden realization of something heretofore unknown or misunderstood. It often connects somehow to a shift in perception or relationship with an antagonist. The quote above, spoken by Elizabeth to herself, is Elizabeth’s moment of anagnorisis, where she finally learns the truth about Darcy and Wickham’s shared past via Darcy’s letter to her, and subsequently realizes her own flaws and mistakes. Elizabeths moment of self-awareness and character pivot indicates the literary skill at work here. Anagnorisis is something that appears in complex works with classical structures and multifaceted, flawed heroes; its presence is further proof that Pride and Prejudice is a skillful narrative, not simply a comedy of manners. In tragedies, this is the moment where a character comes to a much-needed realization, but learns their lesson too late to stop the tragic events already in motion. Because Austen is writing a comedy, not a tragedy, she allows Elizabeth to gain this needed revelation while there’s still time to reverse course and achieve a happy ending. Quotes About Love â€Å"It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.† (Chapter 1) This is one of the most famous opening lines in literature, up there with â€Å"Call me Ishmael† and â€Å"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.† Spoken by the omniscient narrator, the line essentially sums up one of the key premises of the novel; the rest of the story operates under the assumption that the reader and the characters alike share this knowledge. Although the themes of Pride and Prejudice are certainly not limited to marriage and money, those do loom large. It is this belief that leads Mrs. Bennet to push her daughters forward at every turn, both towards worthy candidates such as Mr. Bingley and unworthy ones such as Mr. Collins. Any single man with some fortune is a marriage candidate, plain and simple. There is a particular turn of phrase worth noting here as well: the phrase â€Å"in want of.† Although it sounds, at first glance, that it’s stating a rich, single man always wants a wife. While that’s true, there’s another interpretation. The phrase â€Å"in want of† is also used to indicate a state of lacking something. Thus, the other way to read it is that a rich, single man is lacking one crucial thing: a wife. This reading emphasizes the social expectations placed on both men and women, rather than one or the other. â€Å"You are too generous to trifle with me. If your feelings are still what they were last April, tell me so at once. My affections and wishes are unchanged; but one word from you will silence me on this subject for ever.†Ã‚  (Chapter 58) At the romantic climax of the novel, Mr. Darcy delivers this line to Elizabeth. It comes after all has been revealed between the two of them, all misunderstandings cleared up and both in full knowledge of what the other has said and done. After Elizabeth thanks Darcy for his assistance to Lydia’s marriage, he confesses that he did it all for Elizabeth’s sake and in hopes of proving his true nature to her. Because of her positive reception so far, he makes an attempt to propose to her again – but this could not be more different than his first proposal. When Darcy first proposes to Elizabeth, it’s overlaid with a snobbish – though not inaccurate – appraisal of her social status relative to his. He uses language that â€Å"seems† romantic (insisting that his love is so great it overcame all rational obstacles), but comes across as incredibly insulting. Here, however, he not only approaches Elizabeth without pride and with genuine, unrehearsed language, but he also emphasizes his respect for her wishes. Rather than following the classic trope of â€Å"pursue until you win her over,† he calmly states that he will step away gracefully if that’s what she wants. It’s the ultimate expression of his unselfish love, as opposed to his previous self-centered arrogance and hyperawareness of social status. Quotes About Society â€Å"I declare after all there is no enjoyment like reading! How much sooner one tires of any thing than of a book! When I have a house of my own, I shall be miserable if I have not an excellent library.† (Chapter 11) This quote is spoken by Caroline Bingley, while she is passing time at Netherfield along with her brother, sister, brother-in-law, Mr. Darcy, and Elizabeth. The scene is, at least from her perspective, a subtle competition between her and Elizabeth for Darcy’s attention; she is, in fact, mistaken, as Elizabeth has no interest in Darcy at this time and is only at Netherfield to tend to her ill sister Jane. Miss Bingley’s dialogue is a constant stream of attempts to get attention from Darcy. While she’s rhapsodizing about the joys of reading, she’s pretending to read a book that, as the sharp-tongued narrator informs us, she only chose because it was the second volume of the book Darcy had chosen to read. Often taken out of context, this quote is an excellent example of the gently satirical humor Austen often uses to poke fun at the social elite. The idea of taking pleasure in reading is not silly in and of itself, but Austen gives this line to a character who we know to be insincere, and compounds it by exaggerating the statement past any possibility of sincerity and making the speaker sound desperate and foolish. People themselves alter so much, that there is something new to be observed in them for ever. (Chapter 9) Elizabeth’s dialogue is typically witty and laden with dual meanings, and this quote is a definite example. She delivers this line during a conversation with her mother, Mr. Darcy, and Mr. Bingley about the differences between country and city society. She remarks upon her delight in observing people – which she intends as a barb at Mr. Darcy – and doubles down with this quote when he suggests that provincial life must be quite boring for her observations. On a deeper level, this quote actually foreshadows the lesson Elizabeth learns over the course of the novel. She prides herself on her powers of observation, which creates her â€Å"prejudiced† opinions, and she certainly does not believe that Mr. Darcy, of all people, will ever change. As it turns out, though, there is actually much more to be observed than she has at the point when she makes this sarcastic comment, and Elizabeth comes to understand that truth later on.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Standards in Police Selection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Standards in Police Selection - Essay Example Cases in the media where police officers are caught (on tape or otherwise) brutalizing segments of society only underscore the importance of careful police selection processes being in place. But how do police departments typically set the standards which recruits must pass and what methods are implemented during this crucial selection process? According to Doerner and Nowell (1999), "Most departments rely upon polygraphing, physical wellness standards, educational requirements, medical reviews, and background checks to screen out patently unqualified applicants." These methods are often augmented by "psychological testing, personality typologies, cognitive examinations, interest inventories, oral board interviews, assessment centers, and situational tests" (Doerner & Nowell 1999) in order to complete the selection process. In order to save time and cost in the police selection process, however, attempts to replace these traditional methods of police selection are continually being tested for reliability and validity. To this end, there are many new police selection tools that have come on the market recently. One of these newer methods of police selection is the behavioral-personnel assessment device test (B-PAD). In this test, recruits view a videotape of typical police crises and scenarios, and then their responses of how they would handle the situation as a police officer are recorded on tape, to be viewed by a panel of judges.(Doerner & Nowell 1999). The B-PAD is supposed to test a recruits interpersonal skills and judgment. There are some questions about whether such a test is biased against the demographic background factors of either the recruit or the judges, such as bias based on sex or race. Although preliminary studies show there is no bias in test, there is sure to be more research on this . One of the most typical ways that a police department in the U.S. selects recruits is

Friday, October 18, 2019

Critique of Food and Beverage Operations in the Eye of a Management, Assignment

Critique of Food and Beverage Operations in the Eye of a Management, Support Staff and Customer - Assignment Example In this paper, a critique of hospitality industry operation is made. Considerations are made fro three different hotels; Mediterranean food, Asian food, American dinner. The critique will be viewed in a perspective of a chief in the case of Mediterranean food and in the perspective of a staff in the case of Asian food, and finally in the customer’s perspective in the case of American dinner. The American dinner restaurant is one of the leading hospitality facilities in its location. The location of the restaurant is strategically positioned so as to enable ease of access by many hungry customers of the city. As a guest, the privileges of knowing the detailed operations of the restaurant were accorded and hence a critique of the concepts in this industry was undertaken following the concepts below. Proper marketing paves way for the identification of the right consumer. In this restaurant, various concepts have been developed by the management so as to come up with an optimum share of the market from other competitors. Some of the concepts employed are; The firm has positioned itself just at the heart of the city so as to reap the benefit of a large number of customers. This is an excellent strategy since some customers who would like to get quick meals before returning to work can be able to do so. The problem with the location in the city is that the presence of noise and stuffy environment may not be the choice for many people; prestige goes with quietness and serene ambiance. The menu is the most essential marketing tool and this restaurant has capitalized on that. The menu at this place is treated as the business card for the restaurant. As the customer enters into the hotel, he/she is met by a waiter who hands the menu just at the door, the customer selects the place to sit as he/she goes through the menu. The menu type employed here is the folded format.

Beethovens Symphony vs. Steve Lawrence Song Essay

Beethovens Symphony vs. Steve Lawrence Song - Essay Example In addition, the movement starts with two dramatic fortissimo phrases, which are the motif. The symphony uses imitations and sequences to expand the theme. The imitations tumble over each other with rhythmic regularity, which makes them, appears as if in single form. This forms a flowing melody. After a brief fortissimo  bridge, which is played by horns, is played just before the second theme is introduced. At this stage, we can hear the second theme, which is played in E flat major. This is a relative major, which is more lyrical. It involves playing the piano and the four-note motif with the string companionment. The four-note motif is again based on the codetta. This involves using modulation, development section follows, sequences and imitation, which includes the fortissimo  bridge (Price 10). The second movement in this symphony is played in A flat major. This involves a lyrical work in double variation form. This means that the themes in this case are varied. It also invol ves a long coda. This movement involves playing clarinets, bassoons, violins, with a triplet  arpeggio  in the violas and bass. The third movement involves a ternary form, which consists of scherzo  and trio. A new scherzo and trio form are used in this movement. This movement also has an opening theme that contrasts the previously played themes. This happens due to the use of wind instrument that is regularly repeated. The horns are also included in the movements that are played louder than in the previous movement. This section is in C major. The fourth movement begins with interruption after the scherzo. It has sonata forms used at the end of the development stage. This happens by the music... The researcher of this essay focuses on the comparison of the Beethoven’s symphony and Steve Lawrence song. Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Germany in 1770, and lived until 1827. He was a composer and a pianist. He attended a music school when he was still a young child. Steve Lawrence is an American born actor and singer born in the mid-20th century. Lawrence has played a number of records in the 1950s and the 1960s that made it into the billboard charts. His genre of music includes the blue-eyed soul, R&B, rock, blues-rock, pop rock, and jazz. His music includes the uses of electric organ, synthesizers, bass, drums, guitar, mandolin, violin and other strings. In contrast to the Symphony Number 5, Allegro Con Brio by Beethoven, Steve Lawrence music involves modern equipment’s that are not used in Beethoven’s music. In conclusion, Beethoven’s symphony used combination of movements such as allegro con brio, Second movement, Andante con moto, Third movement , Scherzo Allegro and Fourth movement, allegro. These include an opening sonata, an andante, and a fast scherzo and attacca to the end. The resercher also states that there are different themes that are included in the symphonies as compared to the modern music. We can also learn that there has been an emerging trend in the kind of instruments that have been used overtime. Moreover, the researcher then concluds the essay and mentiones that modern music involves communicating a lot through words while symphonies involved more of instruments.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Americanos Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Americanos - Essay Example The forces that inculcated a desire in the Americans to gain independence, the causes of conflicts among troops, and the consent of leaders have all been well captured in the book. â€Å"Chasteen's book joins a long list of highly regarded and influential English-language surveys of the independence period† (Blanchard). Summary: The book explains how the Portugese and Spanish colonies struggled to gain independence in America. In the start of 19th century, Napoleon conquered Portugal and Spain. This event in Europe brought about many consequences throughout the world. The event sparked a whole range of revolutions everywhere in the Portugese and Spanish empires in the New World. The world history underwent an altogether turn. The independence wars ultimately led to the development of 19 independent republics in America. Some of the most well known leaders of the times like Father Hidalgo, Father Morelos, and Bernardo O'Higgins have been identified along with some not so well k nown women like Manuela Saenz, Juana Azurduy, and Leona Vicario that had played important roles in the overall independence movement. It has been discussed in the book that by the time the wars neared end, the Latin American independence leaders acknowledged the classical liberal principles. In particular, the popular principles of self-determination and sovereignty were embraced. The global reach of values of the Western politics expanded permanently as a result of it. In the years that preceded the independence, the whole colonial society was categorized on the basis of caste. There were europeos, mestizos, americanos, pardos, Indians and blacks. Among them, the europeos were considered as the â€Å"most pure† group. The term, â€Å"Americano† got redefined after huge struggle so as to include non-europeo people. To define America's rainbow of castes as the Americano people recognized the truth on the ground, but it also created a new truth, an airy but potent abstra ction. That abstraction was the Sovereign People, who deserved nothing less than a government of, by, and for the people. (Chasteen 2). The redefinition of americanos went against Spansih colonialists. Many new nations also got influenced in Latin America because of that, and adopted a republican form that was equipped with all trappings of the liberal rule. That is why today, a vast majority of the oldest functioning republics of the world are from Latin America, and are still caught in disturbed political legacy since their birth. Critical analysis: Chasteen has adequately synthesized all major events and identified all key individuals that had played an important role in the wars of independence between 1805-1830. The chief battles and events have been described quite straightforwardly. Figures have been accompanied with biographical information that make it a colorful and balanced portrayal of history. Chasteen has fundamentally made use of secondary sources. Therefore, the book basically offers a makeup of existing scholarship and can not be regarded as an â€Å"addition† to the existing body of literature. However, Americanos is undoubtedly, a valuable addition to the existing scholarship of the history of Latin America. The book mostly presents the state of the art awareness in a clear manner. There are no groundbreaking advances or realization of

Quantative reasoning Speech or Presentation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Quantative reasoning - Speech or Presentation Example This implies that half of the people of this group have a manual dexterity of over 79.5 and the other half of the employees have a manual dexterity of over 79.5. To calculate the standard deviation of Group A, firstly the difference of the values and the mean is calculated, after which these numbers are squared. The total of the squares are then calculated and then divided by the number of values to provide the Variance. The last step is to take the square root of the variance. This provides the standard deviation for the group. The Standard deviation along with the Mean, give the image of Group A to be a better option, whereas combining the Standard deviation and the median, Group B proves to be a better option. Thus these measures alone cannot be considered to make the choice. Other measures are to be kept in mind as well before making a decision by the company. Thus more data and analysis is required for this decision. 2. From the information that has been provided the Mean has been calculated to be 7.55 calls. For the mode however there are two possible answers, 4 as well as 8. This is because they are repeated the most number of times. However, 8 will be chosen as the Mode in this case as it is closer to the mean that has been calculated. The Median for in this case has been calculated to be 7. These numbers are quite accurate and are as expected. These values are all quite accurate, however the median can be considered as the most accurate measure. The Standard Deviation in this case has been calculated as 4.421255. This implies that the number of calls can be 4.421255 Â ­above or below the calculated mean. This deviation is considered to be good as the deviation is not very high and allows a clearer view of the number of calls the company can

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Americanos Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Americanos - Essay Example The forces that inculcated a desire in the Americans to gain independence, the causes of conflicts among troops, and the consent of leaders have all been well captured in the book. â€Å"Chasteen's book joins a long list of highly regarded and influential English-language surveys of the independence period† (Blanchard). Summary: The book explains how the Portugese and Spanish colonies struggled to gain independence in America. In the start of 19th century, Napoleon conquered Portugal and Spain. This event in Europe brought about many consequences throughout the world. The event sparked a whole range of revolutions everywhere in the Portugese and Spanish empires in the New World. The world history underwent an altogether turn. The independence wars ultimately led to the development of 19 independent republics in America. Some of the most well known leaders of the times like Father Hidalgo, Father Morelos, and Bernardo O'Higgins have been identified along with some not so well k nown women like Manuela Saenz, Juana Azurduy, and Leona Vicario that had played important roles in the overall independence movement. It has been discussed in the book that by the time the wars neared end, the Latin American independence leaders acknowledged the classical liberal principles. In particular, the popular principles of self-determination and sovereignty were embraced. The global reach of values of the Western politics expanded permanently as a result of it. In the years that preceded the independence, the whole colonial society was categorized on the basis of caste. There were europeos, mestizos, americanos, pardos, Indians and blacks. Among them, the europeos were considered as the â€Å"most pure† group. The term, â€Å"Americano† got redefined after huge struggle so as to include non-europeo people. To define America's rainbow of castes as the Americano people recognized the truth on the ground, but it also created a new truth, an airy but potent abstra ction. That abstraction was the Sovereign People, who deserved nothing less than a government of, by, and for the people. (Chasteen 2). The redefinition of americanos went against Spansih colonialists. Many new nations also got influenced in Latin America because of that, and adopted a republican form that was equipped with all trappings of the liberal rule. That is why today, a vast majority of the oldest functioning republics of the world are from Latin America, and are still caught in disturbed political legacy since their birth. Critical analysis: Chasteen has adequately synthesized all major events and identified all key individuals that had played an important role in the wars of independence between 1805-1830. The chief battles and events have been described quite straightforwardly. Figures have been accompanied with biographical information that make it a colorful and balanced portrayal of history. Chasteen has fundamentally made use of secondary sources. Therefore, the book basically offers a makeup of existing scholarship and can not be regarded as an â€Å"addition† to the existing body of literature. However, Americanos is undoubtedly, a valuable addition to the existing scholarship of the history of Latin America. The book mostly presents the state of the art awareness in a clear manner. There are no groundbreaking advances or realization of

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Diversity and Inclusion in Organizations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Diversity and Inclusion in Organizations - Essay Example Include your personal definition of inclusion and diversity.  Describe what diversity encompasses, and explain the intersections of multiple forms of diversity in organizations. Diversity and inclusion is many things. In its most superficial definition, D&I is a legal mandate, a requirement for organizations to comply with, and which may open a firm to sanctions and penalties if found in violation of its provisions. However, diversity and inclusion should be more than mere compliance with a requirement. It should entail a change of heart and perspective. The core to D&I’s goals and aspirations is social reform, the eradication of barriers between perceived majority and minority groups which creates unjustified advantages for some and disadvantages for others on the basis of their affiliations. Diversity encompasses the treatment of people as people. Inclusion does not mean the elimination of difference so that all people are the same; it means treating people in the same man ner despite their differences, and even with the acknowledgement and celebration of these differences. Several of the readings in this course described diversity as a source of competitive advantage for organizations, where multifaceted skills and perspectives can be brought to the workplace in support of the company goals. While that is perfectly true, and companies should look to this advantage, it is not the essence of diversity and inclusion. Had it been, then D&I would have just been a means of taking advantage of people’s differences. In an organization, the application of diversity and inclusion may be so diffuse and ambiguous that it is difficult to notice at times whether an issue has D&I implications or not. For instance, assigning people to subsidiaries in certain geographical areas (specially for a multinational organization) on the basis of their ethnicity may be a sensible thing to do from the viewpoint of the organization, but it may be judgmental from the view point of the individual who may not want to be designated there. The very fact that makes people subjects of D&I also in a way reinforces differences among groups and works against their full inclusion. Discuss the impact of diversity on individual and organizational effectiveness.   Discuss some of the tools necessary to lead, direct, and build inclusive organizations. Diversity and inclusion is a source of strategic advantage for an organization; this has been mentioned in all the readings and finds no strong opposition in any of the opinions and reactions discussed in this forum. As to whether or not the advantage is properly optimized or explored is another matter. The inclusion of diverse people in an organization does not automatically ensure individual and organizational effectiveness. As has been voiced in this forum, some organizations merely pay lip service to D&I without imbibing the essence of it. As is true for all individuals, if the organization capably harmonizes p ersonal goals with organizational goals, then the creativity and industry possessed by the individuals in the workforce shall be engaged, and the benefits of diversity realized. Diversity in this case, however, need not be along racial, gender, cultural, or any category identified as being D&I. It may be the skills and knowledge possessed by individuals because of their education, personal interests,

Monday, October 14, 2019

Dulce et Decorum Est - Wilfred Owens Poem Essay Example for Free

Dulce et Decorum Est Wilfred Owens Poem Essay Dulce et Decorum Est Wilfred Owens renowned war poem for its frowning on the glorification on war, and The Last Night by Charlotte Gray, similarly depicting the effects of war on the unimpeachable youth, in prose form. Both are excellent representations of the devastation that war truly is and can only result in, and are both written in historical context, only Dulce et Decorum preceded the latter. Dulce directly juxtaposed another war poet, Jessie Pope, who romanticized the concept of it and really manipulated the patriotic conscience. The irony here is that the even after the former described the trauma that war produced, and the unacceptable manner in how people revered the act, the world went on to WWII. Which almost questions why did it happen, did not the destruction of the previous war play any guilt or effect on the countries leaders? Over the course of this essay, I aim to reveal the physical and mental effects of war as well as covering the idealism and the theme of slaughtering the innocents. In the beginning verse of Dulce, the author plays upon the image of a man walking. Contrastive to the propagandizing posters that were often seen at the time that rendered an erect, striding man holding a gun confidently- a picture of tired, old men is illustrated, which emphasizes the idea that they have aged far too quickly. Bent double, like old beggars and knock-kneed delineate a pigeon-toed figure suffering from pure fatigue an inadequacy to be what is defined as a soldier. In the simile, Coughing like hags, we cursed, we can hear the witch hoarseness of the cough the enigma here is the build-up this state if they have been simply marching through battles, like Jessie Pope presumed. A sense of utter sensory deprivation is conveyed through, Men marched asleep limped on, lame, all tired, drunk with fatigue, deaf even to the hoots. The immediate assumption here is that the men would, if given the choice, collapse in a heap of discomfort, subconscious, and fall asleep. The fact that they are compared to drunken men only accentuates their circumstance, a probable disparity between when they started out as recruits and this moment in the poem. They conjured up a web of deception, and empathy from us, as well as in The Last Night, when the children rest in deep sleep despite the appalling environment really showing their desperation for a moment of peace. The accumulation of all of this is that war has finally taken its toll, the young men evolving or more appropriately, regressing into haggard and withered creatures that have faced acute pain and loss. However, the change in pace within the stanza is evident when faced by death, we experience an ecstasy of fumbling, and this change in speed exposes their anxieties when in the full, frontal face of death, or perhaps the inexplicable torment of a gas attack, as they have seen their peers die in the hands of it before. As they fumble stressing the urgency of the situation not everybody manages to clamber on a gas mask in time. The poem is told from a first-person perspective, although this is not made clear at first, however, this allows us to interpret it from a first-hand simulation. The inevitability of the gas floating towards them like a death sentence is horrific -one soldier inhales it, and the devastating effects described in detail. We watch helplessly at him floundring like a man in fire or lime, which links to burnings at the stake, arguably the worst torture in existence. We see his eyes writhe in his face, a clear connotation of a loon, suggesting he is in an insane, maniacal state. And then his hanging face, like a devils sick of sin., only serves to show how much pain has been delivered. The men then fling him in a wagon which shows the dehumanization of the moment, and they watch him froth and gargle blood, twisting unnaturally. The incurable sores is exactly what it says, incurable. The physical effects are irrevocable, physically and mentally. Through use of emotive metaphors and similes, Owen molds an indubitably sickening portrayal of a suffering man, introducing the readers to the realities of war. Likewise, The Last Night also paints a picture of suffering, but in a far subtler manner. Unlike the soldiers in Dulce, the fate of these innocent, Jewish children is unavoidable for everyone, thus having a certain sadness to it. They have been sentenced to the gas chambers as well, and we can deduce that they will face like pain to the soldier in the previous paragraph, which, for a child, we all know is terrifying and never deserved. The pain we encounter in this extract is more that of basic deprivations, like food, water, and love too. We can understand that the children are exhausted because, despite the most likely uncomfortable surroundings, many of the children were too deeply asleep to be aroused. The children sleep in dung: the soft bloom of cheek laid, uncaring, shows a child with a tinge of rose in his cheeks, the sweetness and the unfairness of this trial he must endure. Again, they are reduced to an animalistic level, Jacobs limbs were intertwined with his [his brothers] for warmth.; this imitates two young, baby animals that lie together, unknowing of the worlds cruelties or the predators that stalk them. The children are ravenous and denied of sufficient food and drink, as they cluster around a woman holding out sardine cans for water, and as we know, these cans are remarkably slim and unsuitable to drink water from, especially when the can is passed around of a crowd. They are each provided with a sandwich, this severe rationing a punishment they do not deserve. The physical pain that is shown in this section of The Last Night is purely tiredness and hunger, two qualities good parents ensure their children are not. Their frail bodies find it difficult to withstand this, but the dramatic irony here is that their fate in store is much worse and absolutely inhumane. A shower of scraps was thrown towards them reiterates the animals they are being essentially treated as. As for the mental pain faced by the soldiers, it must surpass the physical by far. From the lies, to leaving their loved ones, the pain and the distant memories are even more difficult to face. Homesickness, when really experienced, can be a very intense and sad feeling, and this does not really raise any morale. One can only imagine their befuddlement when arriving to the trenches and wondering where their accommodation was. As continued from the previous, their mental velocity increased tremendously when in the face of adversity and death. This can only be expected, and is marked by the Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!. The mental anguish when they see their peer suffer but are utterly of no use in this is astounding, and the scene runs almost as a nightmarish sequence, as signified by Dim through the misty panes, and thick green light. In all my dreams before my helpless sight.. The dramatic verb drown is used, and they watch their former companion die in the sea of gas, they having escaped the same fate by only a second or two. This fact is enough to leave them in a state of momentary shock, and in the future, a play back of this episode is probably revisited by every soldier who saw the sight and regretted having being unable to help him in any way the same shock was experienced when all the Jews realized their time had come: a quickening of muscle and nerve in The Last Night. Through each line, we must remember whom the poem was addressed to, and we can sense some underlying bitterness. The triplet guttering, choking, drowning throws itself out with a dynamic impact. It wouldnt be expected for the children to know of their demise, but as seen in the excerpt, they seem to sense something wrong. This is why In the filthy straw, they dug their heels in and screamed. Instead of just struggling, they choose to scream, which reveals their internal uncertainties and distress. The metaphor dig means they are trying to fix themselves in the straw, and how they distrust the officers. They are forced towards and crammed in a bus, which again, brings back the animal-like treatment motif. As the adults wrote their possibly last messages which had no to little guarantee of delivery, some wrote with sobbing passion and some with punctilious care. Both adjectives suggest a degree of great mental turmoil, the only difference being the latter having some restraint. Yet there is a recognition of hopelessness in the atmosphere, the adults in the room sat slumped against the wall., the emotions going through them must have been complex, but ultimately, an increasing feel of nothing can be done, and giving up. This is not a movie where the resolution magically occurs, but this is a depiction of reality. As the officers call out their names alphabetically, in a standardized order, this shows how devoid of emotion or remorse they are, and how each child and each person is reduced to just another name. There is a nervous and tense atmosphere, it seems as if everybody is waiting for some justice to occur, but as we know, this does not happen. They are quickly thrown into the buses, the homely sound of a Parisian bus is somehow mocking to the whole scene. Probably the most heart-rending image is when a mother sees her child for the last time her eyes were fixed with terrible ferocity intensely open to fix the picture of her child, for ever. To see your child for the last time, to know of the death, to be able to do nothing about it, as in Dulce, there is the same sense of no faith or hope. The wails and screams of the women as they throw food towards the buses from the camp knowing the food will never reach, but desperately wanting to do something anyhow is the final time they will ever see their maternal figures, and the children are, precisely put, doomed. The fact that none of the officers act even merely touched by their fellow humans sadness is repulsive. Five municipal buses now stood trembling in the corner of the yard the buses are personified, which is a symbolic representation of their fear. The story concludes with the bus turning away, the headlights, for a moment, light up the cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ opposite before the driver turned the wheel and headed for the station. This glimpse of something perfectly normal spotlights the unfairness of it all on the children who at one time, had that other life. The theme of glory and innocence is well covered in Dulce. In fact, the title is sufficient, To die for your country, is a sweet thing. The poem runs on to contradict it, ending with, The old lie: Dulce Et Decorum Est, Pro Patria Mori. And we are forced to agree, having been witness to the preceding bloodshed. If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs thy friend, you could not tell with such high zest, to children ardent for some desperate glory, The Old Lie:, this quotation sums up all the contempt he has for any form of glorification of war, when really it is ones own sacrifice rather than an obligation. It has a tinge of instruction to it, almost as if he trying to convince her in an angry, forceful way, and if he said it verbally, it seems as if it would increase with volume. This is quite justified, as Jessie Pope idealized war as fun, and liked it to a game, and that anybody who chickened out was basically a coward. This induced such an outrage that Owen felt he needed to prove how nauseating the concept was. He addresses the soldiers as children, which somehow brings out their naivety and how easy it is to convince adults generally lie to children in order to mask the truth. The young men were obviously targeted for recruiting and decided to join more out of fear of mockery rather than pure patriotism. The concept of innocence in The Last Night is brought up quite often, the youngness of the children is stressed upon. For example, Some children were too small to manage the step up and A baby few weeks cot was crammed into the bus. If the children are too small to even step onto the bus themselves, and require support, and they really criminals or infested jews? They are too young to even know the reason for their death, and as soon as they came into this world, they were stolen just as quickly. They have no ability to reason, no ability to know of the dangers, no ability to believe in anything, yet simply because of their religion something they are most likely unaware of they have been sentenced to die and never experience any of lifes pleasures. If they havent learnt simple motor skills, how can they be expected to react to a gas attack? The pure horror of it can never be condensed it is like those horror stories materialized. Dulce and The Last Night are both classic pieces of history, genuine and likely more realistic records of those corrupt events that hopefully will not happen ever again. They are both timeless, and dark reminders of why war shouldnt happen, although pain is still inflicted, every second. These two pieces are a reminder that pain can never truly be prevented as that is how a few are wired to work and these few have the power to influnce many others. However, the main point the pieces try to bridge across is the innocence of the fighters who are more like pawns or victims and the superfluous glorification of war. Something that pains another should never be laughed or promoted in any form, as fundamentally, we are one species, we are the same, as Shylock in the Merchant of Venice so eloquently expressed. The quotation Do unto others as others would do unto you, applies to both concepts the writers try to draw, but in the end, the sadness in both renditions of war is the dehumanization and of course, the gruesome massacres, but mostly, the indifference. The indifference of the bystanders as well as the leaders.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility Case Study: Sainsburys

Corporate Social Responsibility Case Study: Sainsburys Introduction The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility means that organization have moral, ethical, and generous responsibility in addition to their responsibility to earn a fear return to investors and comply with law. CSR is a concept whereby organizations is consider the interest of society by taking the responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment in all aspect of their operation. In other way CSR is the integration by companies of a social and environmental concern in their business operation and in their integration with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The concept of CSR means going away from the fulfillment of legal requirements by investing more in human capital, The environment, and relations with stakeholders. It is a voluntary instrument, but must be implemented consistently so that it fosters trust and confidence among stakeholders. Definitions of Corporate Social Responsibilities Giving a universal definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is bit difficult as there no common definition as such. However, there are few common threads that connect all the perspective of CSR with each other; most ideal definition of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been given by world of business council for sustained Development which says, â€Å"Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the work force and their family as well as of the local community and society at large†. The online encyclopedia, Wikipedia 2009 has one definition of CSR is †Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the decision-making and implementation process that guides all company activities in the protection and promotion of international human rights, labor and environmental standards and compliance with legal requirements within its operations and in its†. On the other hand, the European Commission hedges its bets with two definitions wrapped into one:â€Å"A concept whereby companies decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment. A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis†. The corporate social responsibility means that organization have moral, ethical, and generous responsibility in addition to their responsibility to earn a fear return to investors and comply with law. Nature of Corporate Social Responsibility Probably the most established and accepted model is the ‘Four-part Model of CSR as initially proposed by (Archie Carroll) in 1979, and subsequently refined later publication (Carroll and Buchhholtz 2000). Carroll regard CSR as a multi-layer concept, which can be differentiated into four inter related aspects-Economic, Legal, Ethical and Philanthropic responsibility. He presents these responsibilities as consecutive layer within pyramid, such that â€Å"true† social responsibility required the meeting of all four level consecutively. In 1991 Carroll first presented the Corporate Social Responsibility model as a pyramid as shown in above diagram. Corporate social responsibility and your business Corporate social responsibility can cut across almost everything you do and everyone you deal with. You need to think about; The suppliers you choose and the way you deal with them. For example trading the suppliers who pollute the environment could be as irresponsible as doing your self. How you treat with your employees? For the responsible business, this means doing more then simply complying with legal requirements. How your business effect local community? And whether you should actively involved in or supports your local charity, or sponsor a local event. Benefits of corporate social responsibility Make the most of corporate social responsibility by publicizing them. Ensure that customers, suppliers and local community know what you are doing. Publicity like this can be a key part of using CSR to win contracts. Peoples want to buy from businesses they respect.CSR can be particularly affective for targeting ethical companies. At the same time you should see CSR as a part of continuing process of building long term value. Everything you do help to improve your reputation and encourage customers and other stakeholders to stay and involved with you. Even with dozens of competitors, a real commitment to CSR lets you stand out. As an example, John Lewis department stores are well known as a business owned by its employee. Its commitment to CSR feeds through into customers services, sales and profits. As well as affecting the way you behave, CSR can lead to new products and services that reflect your values and those of your stakeholders. Over time, it can all add up to a power brand and a winning business. Introduction:- Sainsburys was founded in 1869 by John Sainsbury and is today the UKs third largest grocery retailer. The chain consists of 504 supermarkets, 319 convenience stores. Sainsbury also owns the Sainsbury Bank which offers a range of insurance and savings products The Sainsbury Archive documents the history of one of the nations oldest retailers, and Londons oldest. It also provides a unique illustration of the transformation that has occurred in retailing and in shopping and eating habits since the mid-19th century. Sainsburys was established as a partnership in 1869 by John James Sainsbury and his wife Mary Ann opened a store at 173 Drury Lane in Holborn, London. He started as a retailer of fresh foods and later expanded into packaged groceries such as tea and sugar. His trading philosophy, as stated on a sign outside his first shop in Islington, was â€Å"Quality perfect, prices lower†. Other important dates In 1922 J Sainsbury was incorporated as a private company, as J. Sainsbury Limited On 12 July 1973the company went public, as J Sainsbury plc. in 1979, when Sainsburys formed a joint venture with the Belgian retailer, In 1996 the company reported its first fall in profits for 22 years. By the time John James Sainsbury died in 1928, there were 128 shops. His last words were said to be â€Å"Keep the shops well lit† Current operations Sainsburys currently operates 785 hypermarkets, supermarkets and convenience stores. Split down as 509 supermarkets and 276 convenience stores. also operates Sainsburys Bank, which sells financial services Has a property portfolio worth  £8.6billion. According to Taylor Nelson Sofres rankings published in January 2008, Sainsburys market share was 16.4% compared to Tescos 31.5%, ASDAs 16.7% and Morrisons 11.4%.2005/06 Sainsbury ethical issues: SAINSBURY has written to its main suppliers that the supermarket giant was embroiled in a  £3m bribes investigation. Under company regulations, supermarket staff must pay for their own travel to visit suppliers sites and must not accept gifts. As supermarkets most senior buyers was arrested on suspicion of accepting backhanders from a potato company. John Maylam was arrested earlier this month over allegedly receiving irregular payments from Greenvale, which supplies nearly half of the chains potatoes. David Baxter, Greenvales operations director, was also arrested. Sainsbury, led by Justin King, chief executive said : â€Å"We are the victims of an alleged crime and take it very seriously. None of the payments went through our system and we believe this was limited to the one supplier.† Greenvale has potato-packing operations in Shropshire, Cambridgeshire and the Scottish borders. The company received the Queens Award for Innovation, is understood to supply about 45% of Sainsburys potatoes. The irregular payments up to  £3m are understood to have been discovered by Produce Investments â€Å"Greenvales parent company† and brought to the attention of Sainsbury. Cheap bananas on supermarket shelves threaten the livelihood and well-being of banana growers across the developing world, campaigners had told at the annual general meeting of supermarket giant Sainsbury AGM highlight the impact cheap food is having on producers, which contrasts sharply with the supermarkets claims of ethical integrity made in its Corporate Social Responsibility report Banana growers are facing a crisis because of the low prices paid by supermarket chains in the current banana price war. Banana workers cannot adequately feed their families despite working 11-12 hour days. Working conditions on banana plantations are often very poor. The workers are also exposed to powerful pesticides to meet the cosmetic appearance requirements set by the supermarkets. According to Sainsburys CSR report â€Å"We can offer our customers excellent products but not at the expense of people in developing countries who may be working in unsafe conditions for poor wages†.. Alistair Smith of Banana Link said: â€Å"We are looking to Sainsbury to take the lead in matching its verbal commitment to ethical trading with its practice along the banana supply chain. In following the price war led by Asda and Tesco, Sainsbury has joined the ranks of those who are now driving a ‘race to the bottom in the banana industry. The unsustainably low prices they are paying suppliers get passed on to producers who are squeezing their workers even harder than before.† Friends of the Earth and Banana Link are calling on Sainsburys to ; live up to their promises Ensure that banana workers get a living wage and decent working conditions. A failure to do this will indicate that the big supermarkets cannot be trusted. The role of employer and employees: The Sainsburys brand tradition of providing customers healthy, safe, fresh and tasty food. It differentiates itself by offering a broad range of great quality products at fair prices with particular emphasis on fresh food, a strong ethical approach to business and continuous leadership and innovation. The company employs approximately 140,000 people in the UK. Last year turnover of  £17.8 billion and made an operating profit of around  £530 million. Sainsbury is estimated to have a 14.8% share of the  £123bn UK grocery market. Sainsburys CEO (Justin King) recently stated: â€Å"Learning never stops at Sainsburys and every one of our colleagues can improve their skills, which not only benefits our customers but also supports our colleagues to achieve their full potential. Sainsbury was one of the first businesses in the UK to sign up to the Governments Skills Pledge, enabling the company to publicly define its commitment to skills training. The company also launched its â€Å"You Can† programme in November 2008 which has brought its entire training under one umbrella. Sainsburys has been working with the National Employer Service (NES) for the last 3.5 years and has held an NES contract for 3 years The company was originally introduced to the NES by its Sector Skills Council, Skill smart. The company has approximately 4,400 employees. Report covers the corporate responsibility activities of JSainsburyplc in the fiscal year to 21 March 2009. The Report contains details of our five values, which are the guiding principles for our company as below, Best for food and health; Our goal is to offer our customers great quality food at fair prices and, as a leading food retailer; we are committed to being ‘Best for food and health. Our approach is to help and inspire customers to eat a healthy balanced diet by promoting healthy eating and active lifestyles. We work hard to make our products as healthy as possible, without compromising on quality or taste. Were also committed to providing our customers with clear and transparent labeling, to help them make informed choices about the food and drink they buy. Sources with integrity; Sourcing with integrity is central to our ability to deliver great product at fair prices. In practice it means working with our suppliers to ensure the sustainability of our products in the round, taking into consideration their economic, environmental and social impacts. We are committed to offering products that are better for customers and for the environment, in a way that is also better for the animals, farmers and producers involved in their production. We offer around 30,000 products in our stores. Only by working closely with our suppliers can we deliver great quality products for our customers whilst ensuring our standards of integrity are upheld. Respect for our environment; At Sainsburys we take environmental issues seriously. We aim to be environmentally responsible in the way we run our business and we also want to make it easy for customers to be environmentally responsible. Climate change represents one of the greatest challenges we face, both as a business and as a global population. We recognise that tackling the issue involves addressing both our direct and indirect impacts. We are working hard to reduce our operational footprint and we continue to develop a better understanding of the carbon embodied in our products and in the construction of our buildings. Positive difference to our community Our stores are at the very heart of the communities they serve. For us this is not only about providing great service and quality products. Its also about making a positive difference to our communities and being a good neighbour. This begins with the positive economic impact our stores have in generating local wealth, by providing employment, using local suppliers and contractors, and regenerating the local surroundings. But theres much more to it than that. Good place to work; Being ‘A great place to work is rooted in Sainsburys heritage and values. It also plays a crucial role in achieving our business goals. We rely on our 150,000 colleagues to deliver great service to our customers every single day. We are committed to championing equality, diversity, inclusion and flexible working options for our colleagues. We remain committed to recruiting, retaining and engaging the best people, from backgrounds that reflect the communities we serve. We believe that every colleague, no matter where they work or the role they perform, should be encouraged to develop and make best use of their skills. We value the opinions of our colleagues and we communicate honestly with them. We also believe in recognising and rewarding our colleagues for the vital part they play in making Sainsburys a great place to work. Sainsbury Plc Reports: 2003-2006 on CSR J. Sainsbury plc owns Sainsburys Supermarkets (hereafter Sainsburys), the U.K.s third largest retailer after Tesco and Asda. For many years since it opened for business in 1869, Sainsburys was the countrys biggest supermarket, the undisputed market leader. A series of mis-steps allowed competitor Tesco to catch up in 1995. In 2003, Asda passed Sainsburys, relegating the latter to third position where it stays. Sainsburys is now playing catch up, regaining market share one percentage point at a Time. A publicly listed corporation since 1973, the company is on the renewal trail as it attempts to regain its leading position in the industry. Using a combination of common management tools in a wide range of areas, from stocking its shelves full with items customers want to buy to executing on a complete revamp of its information technology and supply chain management systems, a new senior management team is revitalizing the whole organization from top to bottom. This brief history helps us analyses the period 2003 to 2006, during which Sainsburys hit the dust with their first-ever revenues slump in history (in the year ended March 2005) and then as nimbly picked itself up and began staging a comeback. We can learn how they are doing by studying the companys annual reports which are the â€Å"official† snapshots of the whole corporation each year. Just like any other company at the mercy of its stakeholders (Freeman, 1984), Sainsburys is expected to behave to satisfy everyone. First Question Identify significant areas of the accounts for 2006 where judgment has been used in determining the appropriate accounting policy for the company (for example depreciation of fixed assets). Critically discuss how such judgments have materially affected the accounts in terms of valuation and profitability. References; Business ethics 2nd edition by Andrew Crane, Dirk Matten Betsy Reed, The Business of social responsibility, Dollars Sense magazine May, 1998 Bryman, A and Bell, E Business Research Methods (Second Edition) Oxford Oxford University Press, 2007 Clark, A Nike sacks Pakistani supplier over child Labour row, Guardian 20th, Nov, 2006 Colin, F Business Ethics and Values Essex,Pearson Education Limited 2003 DeTienne, K. B. Lewis, L.W ‘The Pragmatic and Ethical Barriers to Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: The Nike Case Journal of Business Ethics 2005 George, C Essentials of Business Ethics Berkshire,McGraw-Hill Book Company Europe 1996 Goldman, R and Papson, S Nike culture. LondonThousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publication 1998 Klein, N No logo London: Harper Perennial, 2000 Jonathan, B ‘NIKE to resume football production in Pakistan Financial Times 26th May, 2007 Maidment.F; Eldridge, W Business in government and society: Ethical, International Decision-Marking; Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall 1999 McCarthy, R ‘Football ban sends child workers into worse job Gaurdian 25th Apr, 2001 Mcinotosh M, Leipziger, D, Jones, K Coleman Corporate citizenship: successful strategies for responsible companies. London: Financial Times: Pitman Publication, 1998 Mellahi, K, Wood, G The Ethical Business; Basingstoke Palgrave, 2003 Parkins, S, J and Short land, S, M Strategic International London, 2006 Robert C. Solomon Ethics and Excellence cooperation Oxford, Oxford University press 1993 Sachdev, A Chicago Nike Store accused of racial discrimination in suit, Chicago Tribute, 24th, Aug, 2004 Schneider, S, C Managing Across Culture(second edition) England, JEAN-JOUIS BARSOUX 2003 Seedhouse, D Ethics(second edition) England, John wiley Sons Ltd 1998 Shaw, W, H Moral issue in Business, Vancent Barry wandsworth pub co, Mar 2006 Bottom of Form Roman Empire: A Success Story Roman Empire: A Success Story A century ago, Roman Empire represented a success story for imperialist Britain as well as other European states with imperial ambitions. The Roman story of conquest was imitated, but never fully matched or even replicated. The dream that an imperial empire could not only conquer, but also create a Pax Romana, a vast area of peace, prosperity, and unity was a genuine inspiration for other empires. No other empire was capable of having such a successful reign of power, control, and satisfaction among their people as the Roman Empire did. The Roman Empire was so successful because of roman dominance in warfare and the stable structure of politics. The empire was impressive because the Romans were very practical and well organized people, they were ambitious and aggressive in obtaining anything the Romans craved. All Roman ideas primarily derived from other cultures, but they always took the ideas to the next level and were the best at everything they approached. The Romans lived to achieve a standard of excellence and were never satisfied with what they had already achieved and always sought to improve. Early Rome was indeed governed by kings, but after a few had ruled the Romans managed to take power of their own cities and rule themselves. The Romans established the senate better referred to as the Roman Republic, before the senate only advised the king, but now the senate appointed a representative who would rule Rome as a king. (PAPAIOANNOU 209) The newly established system was very unique and a wise idea because the representative ruled carefully and not as a tyrant, because he was well aware if he did otherwise he would be punished by the next representative. From this point on the Roman Empire attempted to address all public matters or matters of the state, eventually leading to an era of peace and prosperity. The five good emperors were known for their reasonable policies, in contrast to other more tyrannical and harsh rulers. This period was particularly notable for the peaceful methods of progression, whereas each emperor chose his successor by adopting one. As the Empire was both secure from interior and exterior threats, the Romans prospered under a period of peace often referred to as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace. One major factor contributing to Romes very successful territorial expansion was the superior military authority, which was the main influential factor that guaranteed Roman power for nearly a thousand years. The Romans had several advantages such as rapid developments of the latest technology, vast numbers of infantry, along with a stable senate system, and much wealth to fuel Roman ambitions. Not only were the Romans very powerful, they were also a very well developed community consisting of sewers to control waste, aqueducts for plumbing, and paved roads for transportation. Roman advancements in technology and geographical modifications were very superior to other nations at the times because other nations simply did not have the same commodities. The Roman military system was not fueled by one type of military but by various types which provided the Roman Empire with a large assortment of choices when it came to battle. The Roman army usually consisted of Hastati, Principes or Legionary Cohorts whom were very useful marvelous soldiers. Rome used their absolute force to overwhelm most enemies and often used tactical strategies that allowed them to cave in on enemy flanks causing a very rapid ambush. The Roman Army had access to exceptional horses as well as a mixture of troops which were mainly a deciding factor in conflict. One of the most astonishing features of the Roman Empire was the complete diversity of the geographical and cultural landscapes the Romans controlled. Vast regional differences did indeed continue, but there was little sense that emperors felt obligated to promote or protect them. The unity of the empire laid in a combination of factors that were depended on common values, many of which were considered to be cultural. The fall of the Roman Empire was in the end a result of Rome being overrun by many barbarians from the northern and eastern of Europe. The great migration proved too much for the Romans to control considering that Roman armies were designed to defeat other armies, not entire folks and peoples flooding toward them. Sadly, as the Roman Empire was stabilizing itself in an era of complete peace and prosperity, the empire had to come to an end which was marked when Rome was conquered by the Visigoth Odoacer and his men in the year AD 476. (Prufer 72) The Roman Empire was a magnificent and impressive empire that was essentially progressing towards a nation similar to that of early 18th century America. The Romans provided Europe with the ideology of Christianity which influenced the events that were to precede in the future events that have changed the world today. The Romans will be looked upon for their beliefs, attitudes, values, and initiative being nearly impossible to emulate by other nations. In reality, the Roman Empire has very little relevance or connection to modern America, but just to lay both Imperial nations side by side, the goals achieved by the Roman Empire are significantly impressive. The time period is completely different, as the cultures, way of life, economy, and war. To compare the United States to Rome is ludicrous because they have nothing in common. Despite the fact that the Roman Empire may be viewed as nothing more than a sheer force attempting to acquire a vast majority of land, society should not turn its shoulder to the glorious achievements of the Romans. In a sense the Roman Empire served as an influential force often encouraging a replication of vast territorial conquerization, which led to the establishment of various new territories. However it not the vast majority of land that the Roman Empire obtained and managed to keep control over that is impressive, rather the development of a peaceful era with a mildly democratic government which allowed the election of their representatives. Hopefully everyone can look beyond the Romans cruelty and grasp a taste of the glorious era spurred by the Pax Romana.